The Wealth makers of the world. (Lincoln, Nebraska) 1894-1896, November 22, 1894, Image 1

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The United States Strike Oommisaioiieri
Make Beport
An Unlawful Body Which Usurped So
cially Dangerous Power Labor
Organizations Should Be
, Recommendations of Commission
The United States Strike Commission,
consisting of Carroll D. Wright, of
Washington; John D. Kernan, of Dtica,
N. T., and Nicholas E. Worthington, of
Peoria, 111., appointed by President Cleve
land to investigate the Chicago strike,
has reported to the president.
The report commends the objects of
the A. R. U. and its conservative profes
sion, while sacredly guarding members
that it will not entertain intemperate de
mands or unreasonable propositions,but
will with due regard for justice wherever
found seek to avoid the necessity of
strike and lockout, boycott and black
list. It condemns its failure to provide
in the constitution adopted for the pun
ishment or disqualification of any mem
ber instigating violence toward persons
or property.
The report condemns the Pullman
company for its hostility to the idea of
onferring with organized labor in the
settlement of differences arising between
it and its employes. "In this respect the
, Pullman company as behind the age," it
cays. "The company does not recognize
that labor organizations have any place
or necessity in Pullman, where the com
pany fixes wages and rents, and refuses
to treat with labor organizations." On
this crucial point the commission was a
unit in its criticism of the refusal to al
low the organized workers to be heard
and in condemning its present policy,
eince the strike, requiring the withdrawal
from the American Railway Union of
those seeking work.
The General Managers' Association, it
finds, was organized in 1886, its mem
bers being the twenty-four railroads cen
tering or terminating in Chicago. It is
not an incorporated body and was by
the law given no authority to act as it
did. "The Association is an illustration
of the persistent and shrewdly devised
plans of corporations to overreach their
limitations, and to usurp indirectly pow
rs and rights not contemplated in their
charters and not obtainable from the
people or their legislators." And it goes
on to say:
"The refusal of the General Managers'
Association to recognize and deal with
uch a combination of labor as the
American Railway Union seems arrogant
And absurd when we consider its stand
ing before the law, its assumptions, and
its past and obviously contemplated
future action."
The cut in wages of employes at Pull
man from May, 1892, to May, 1894, av
oraged 25 per cent. During this time the
Pullman company was paid its full two
cents a mile lor its cars without regard
to the business depression. Its revenues
were reduced only by fall of prices in its
repair and contract work. But it pressed
the screws on all its employes, "officers,
managers and superintendents except
ed," and in no case reduced its rents to
correspond. It threw the loss of the
hard times on those receiving lowest
wages and least able to bear it, and
while hundreds were starving or kept
alive by outside charity, the company
divided among its stockholders its regu
lar quarterly two per cent dividend.
Thecommission says the Pullman Com---paatjr-iiad
legal right to refuse to lower
its rents when wagps were lowered, but
, "as. be.wann .raajwvf .vsoroe reduc
'tttewaSiwr'a'nd reason
able under the circumstances."
The strikers voluntarily furnished a
Kuard of three hundred men to protect
the Pullman property from May 11 until
the soldiers came, July 4th, and no dam
age was done the property. The Com
mission speaks in strong praise of these
acts of protection and support of law, as
"Such dignified, manly and conserva
tive conduct in the- midst of excitement
and threatened starvation is worthy of
the highest type of American citizenship,
and with like prudence in all other direc
tions will result in due time in the lawful
and orderly redress of labor wrongs. To
deny this is to forswear patriotism and
to declare this government and its peo
ple a failure."
Concerning the causes of the strike the
report in part says:
"It is apparent that the readiness to
strike sympathetically was promoted by
the disturbed andapprehensivecondition
of the railroad employes resulting from
wage reductions on different lines, black
listing, etc., and from the recent growth
and development of the General Manag
ers Association, which seemed to them
a menace. Hence the railroad employes
were ripe to espouse the cause of the
PullmRn strikers."
No spirit of conciliation or1 mercy for
the starving wai shown by the Pullman
concern at the first when the workers
asked for living wages and the absolute
soullessness of corporations was shown
Dy tne entire action of the General Man
agers' Association. The report savs:
"The General Managers' Association in
advance advertised that it would receive
no communication whatever from the
American Railway Union, when received
returned it unanswered. At this date.
July 13, and for some days previous, the
strikers had been virtually beaten. The
action of the courts deprived the Ameri
can uauway union ot leadership, en
abled the General Manaeers' Association
to disintegrate its forces, and to make
inroads into its ranks."
"The policy of both the Pullman com
pany and the Railway Manaeers' Asso
ciation in reference to applications to ar
bitrate closed the door to all attempts
at conciliation and settlement of differ
ences. Ibe Commission is impressed
with the belief, by the evidence and by
the attendant circumstances as disclosed,
that a different policy would have pre
vented the loss of life and great loss of
property and wages occasioned by the
The Commission exonerates the lead
ers of the strike from charges of inciting
iu violence in inese woras:
"There is no evidence before the Com
mission that the officers of the American
Railway Union at any time participated
in or advised intimidation, violence, or
destruction ot property. They knew and
fully appreciated that as soon as mobs
ruled the organized forces of society would
crush the mobs and all responsible for
them in the remotest degree, and that
this meant defeat. The attacks upon
corporations and monopolies by the
leaders in their speeches are similar to
those to be found iu the magazines and
industrial works of the day.
In its eopelneions and recommenda
tions the Commission says that the rail'
roads "were chartered upon the theory
that their competition would ajnply pro
tect snippers as to rates, etc., and em
ployes as to wages and other considera
tions." But combination has largely
destroyed this theory and seriously dis
turbed the working of the law of supply
and demand. .Not only are rates agreed
on and arbitrarily fixed by the railroad
combine, but it is shown in the testimony
that these great corporations no longer
bid against one another in the pay of
their laborers, switchmen, for instance.
"In view of this progressive perversion of
the laws of supply and demand by capi
tal and changed conditions, no man can
well deny the right nor dispute the wis
dom ot unity for legislative and protect
ive purposes among those who supply
labor," says the Commission. It goes
on to say:
1 he Commission deems recommenda
tions of specific remedies premature.
Such a problem, for instance, asuniversal
government ownership of railroads is
too vast, many-sided, and far away, if
attempted, to be considered as an imme
diate, practical remedy. It belongs to
the socialistic group-of public questions
where government ownership is advo
i ated of monopolies, such as telegraphs,
telephones, express companies, and mu
nicipal ownership of water works, gas,
and electric lighting, and street railways.
These questions are pressing more ur
gently as time goes on. They need to be
well studied and considered in every as
pect by all citizens. Should continued
combinations and consolidations result
in half a dozen or less ownerships of our
railroads within a few years, as is by no
means unlikely, the question of govern
ment ownership will be forced to the
front, and we need to be ready to dispose
of it intelligently. As combination goes
on there will certainly at least have to
be greater government regulation and
control of quaai-publiccorporations than
we nave now. Whenever a nation or a
state finds itself in such relation to a
railroad that its investments therein
must be either lost or protected by own
ership, would it not be wise that the
road be taken and the experiment be
tried as an object lesson in government
Meanwhile the Commission proposes
legislation to provide for boards of concil-
iation and arbitration, legislation that
will guard the interests and rights of the
public, while disputes are being settled
telore micartiaJ-tribunals. And it rec
ommends that congress provide a per
manent United States Strike Commission
of three members with duties and powers
of investigation and recommendation
similur to those vested in the Inter State
Commerce Commission; that power be
given the United States courts to compel
railroads to obey the decisions of the
Commission after summary hearing un
attended by technicalities, and that no
delnys in obeying the decisions of the
Commission pending; that each railroad
in controversy, and each national trade
union incorporated under United States
or state statutes shall be allowed to se
lect a representative who shall be ap
pointed by the president to serve as a
temporary member of the Commission in
hearing, adjusting and determining that
particular controversy; and that while
the matter in controversy ia pending the
unions shall not aid or abet strikes or
boycotts, nor shall the railroads for six
months after the decision is reached dis
charge such employes except for ineffi
ciency, vioiation of laws, or neglect of
The Commission also recommends
"that chapter 567 of the United States
btatutes be amended bo as to require
national trades anions to provide in
their articles of incorporation nod In
their constitutions, rules, and by-laws
tnat a member shall cease to be sued and
forfeit all rights and privileges conferred
on lain by law as such by participating
in or instigating force or violence against
persons or property during strikes or
boycotts, or by seeking topreventothtrs
irom working through violence, threats,
or intimidations; also, that members
shall be no more personally liable forcor
porate acts than are stockholders iu cor
The question of enlistment of employes
and a license system (such as Chancellor
Canfield, of our state university pro
poses), it favors investigating, with a
view to adopting the simplest and1 best
plan. (
States are recommended to adopt
some such system of conciliation and
arbitration as Massachusetts has adopt
ed, and "contracts requiringmen to agree
not to join labor organizations or to
loave them, as conditions of employment
nou hi be made illegal, as is already
done in some states." finally the Com
mission urges employers to recognize la
bor organizations and deal with them
through their representatives. 4
Choice Breeding Swine. ''
Never in the history of the swine in
dustry has this sort of domestic animal
attained such general excellence as at
the present time. Every observer of live
stock during the past decade cannot fail
to have noticed this wonderful improve
ment. With all this progress, however,
there is yet great occasion for careful se
In the best of herds there is a choice,
and those who propose to maintain and
advance the high standard of their herds
cannot be too vigilant in making selec
tion ot the sire for this purpose. A few
of the very best dams of a herd, , too.
should always be retained, as "ft Tffnbt
safe to trust entirely to young gilts, be
their superiority ever so great.
it is practical business management.
too, in all herds to add some new blood
annually, by purchase of Rome new gilts,
JNo herd will be strongly attractive to
buyers that does not offer a variety of
blood. . Inbreeding, too, cannot be
otherwise so cheaply avoided. Success
through a series of years in pork pro'
duction demands the fullest knowledge of
the breeding of one s stock. Careful se
lection, mating, feeding, sanitary atten
tion and business sagacity, calls for
brains every day in the year to keep the
hog thrifty and in continuous profitable
condition. Choice follows choosing, and
those selecting early in the season will, of
course, have opportunity to get the
All indications point to the year 1895
as a tavorable one lor fair prices for pork.
Improved business will increase the call
for the products. Short crops in many
parts will decrease the number who will
hold or secure brood sows, so supply will
be limited. Those who can should be
ready for the coming good demand. M
in Farm, Field and Fireside.
Handling Corn Fodder.
John Howatt, Iowa, tells in the Home
stead how he handles corn fodder. He
says: Take an oak pole twelve feet long
thai will square three or four inches, set
it in the rear end of your hayrack, bolt it
j the cross-bar of your rack, use two
pieces of 2x4, one seven feet, the other
nine; bolt these to the same crosspiece as
the pole, then bolt to the pole at their
upper ends, bracing it in two places.
owing to the different lengths; use a 2x4
five feet long to brace on the forward side
of the pole to the bottom of rack; nail
on; take a 2x4 twelve feet long and fast-
en with a pivot on the pole, five feet
above the floor of the rack, fasten the
other end with rope or chain seven or
eight feet long to the top of the upright
poie. inis makes a swinging arm that
will swing out over yourshocks on either
side. Put a pulley on outer end of swing
ing arm, another atlowerend and one at
the rack; run a good rope through. Use
horse to pull up the shocks. Put a
rope around the shock, tie a hook on end
of long rope, hook in rope on shock and
hoist. The man on the wagon should
have a guy rope attached to the hook to
guide the shock as it swings up. Use a
piece of rope on every shock, leaving
them on until you unload, when you can
se tne derrick to unload. If vour stack
gets high, shorten your rope from pole to
swinging arm, raising the latter, giving
more room for stacking high. By this
method all the fodder is saved and all
the unpleasant part of handling corn
Fodder avoided. Two men can tie and
load ten shocks in twenty minutes. We
did it, and "what man has done man
may do." For a pivot I uspd a large
staple driven into the pole, with the bolt
taken out of an old neckyoke, with an
eye on one end through which the staple
was put, and the arm driven on the bolt.
Farm, Field and Fireside.
A Bank Wrecker laved,
f opera, Kan., Nov. '8. The su
preme court to-day reversed and re
manded the case of the state acrainat
V. Myers of Kiowa county. Mvera
was convicted of bank wrecking.
Professor Jonea Proposes Educa
tional Work.
Professor Jones, of Hastings, has, in
replying to a letter of Chairman Edmis
ten's.reviewed the situation and proposed
a state educational campaign that is bo
manifestly wise and practical. that we
give it to all our people through Tbb
Wealth Makers. The letter in part is
as follows:
I rejoice that Judge Holcomb is elected.
The people who elected him should seat
The will of the people was doubtless
defeated when John H. Powers was
counted out. The same parties will dis
possess Judge Holcoinb of his rights,
and thereby the people of their rights, if
money, intimidation and fraud can do it.
I look upon the recent flections, take
the country over, as a blind effort of the
people to better their social condition.
In '92 they landed the Democratic party
in power, completely, for the first time iu
thirty years. No relief has suddenly over
taken them. In '94 they try to rein
state the Republican party in power.
They still look to the two old parties
for relief. It cannot come thence.
Our party is in process of formation.
It is in a fluid state. One-half of our
Populist voters do not really understand
the principles on which the Populist
movement is based. The consequence is
that many retain a -loose hold upon our
principles and are shaken from their hold
r . .. . !,:
by a bold, arrogant, ana supercilious ioe.
- The masses of all parties do not dis
tinguish between the demagogue and the
houest, clear thinker, when they listen to
a speech, or when they read one.
It would seem that nothingbut contin
ued social affliction will drive the people
to act unitedly in theirown interests and
that of the general welfare.
The power of the railroads over small
and large communities alikeis such as to
intimidate the "business wen" in their
respective communities for fear of dis
criminations in freight rates against all
who do not support by vote and by con-tribationfr-fcM
party Which give political
control of all legislation and adjudica
tion affectiug the "vested rights" of rail
roads. This power of the railroad corpora
tions determines the success or failure of
thousands of men in the state.
The thousands of employes wage-
earners dependent in turn on the busi
ness men are plainly told what way it
will be for their interest to vote.
All these men and their families are,
directly and indirectly, dependent on
this great natural monopoly the rail
roadfor a living. Not only the men
named, but organized communities and
their industries are at their mercy.
Then the "banks ' in every little ham
let of the state absorb by usury the sur
plus earnings of the people, lue way
in which business is now organized the
"banker" in a little one-horse town exor
cises a power nearly equal to the old
feudal barons. Here is another natural
monopoly in private hands.
1 am not surprised at the result of the
election, when I reflect that the result is
the consequence of the exercise of the
legitimate power held by the corpora
What are we going to do about it?
First Seat Holcomb in the place to
which he wns elected.
Second Organize at once a campaign
of education, on four points.
la). A scientific presentation of the
money question by approved books and
approved speakers.
(0). The same kind of presentation of
natural monopolies which would include
railroads, telegraphs, telephones, etc., in
which exposition the absurdity of ever
expecting social peace or justice under
private ownership shall appear. This by
approved books and speakers as bejore.
(C). The genesis of artificial monopo
liestrusts, etc. and the necessity and
justice of co-operation as the settlement
between employer and employe. Con
ducted same as aboye.
id). The land question. A taxation of
land values. Exposition as above by
books and lectures. All this matter to
be cenducted scientifically.
This education would lay the ground
for a political platform of large or small
proportions, as may seem best at the
time of making. It may even make a
single demand, if thought best.
1 here may be collateral questions dis
When these questions are properly un
derstood, it will be seen that the reforms
we demand can be fitted into the existing
economic and legal system and shock no
body but the legal robber.
One of the strongest objections I have
encountered in the last campaign, among
the most intelligent classes, not Populist,
is that our speakers, or those who as
sume to expound Populist doctrine.make
impracticable demands; demands that if
adopted would revolutionize society.W ell,
that's what we wantto do; but we desire
to do this by the adoption of principles
now existing in the system as governing
principles. By above course of education
this could be made clear.
Above are suggestions. If your com
mittee shall have any use for them they
are welcome. If not, put them in the
waste basket. .
Anyhow, let's organize at once for next
campaign. A supreme judge is to b
elected next fall and the court houses are
to be captured.
"On to Richmond " '
Let me have your impressions as to
above scheme.
I am, yours truly,
Wm. A. Jokes.
. voa oovnsoa.
Holcomb, Fop,., ...,,. 97,810
Mnoril, lisp 84,618
Hturdeyant, "Straluht hem" ., t.txi
Uerrard, Frob ..............,....... 4,439
Holoomb'i plurality 8.302
Moore, Ren....., (17,298
OttlflD, Fop 86.8H8
Piper, nip...............,....,................. ....9(!,ri7
Mut-ailclen, fop .......(M.saa
E. Moore, Rep...... BS.728
W llson, Pop 75,i.ii3
Dartley, Rep....,
Powers, 1'op.....
Corbett, Rep....
Jones, t'op........... ........
Ohnrchlll, Rop..
Carey, I'op......
Ktineell. Up ...... 9,M2
Kent, I'up . B3.28S
Kern elected In Sixth district by 3,102 plurality.
AfFrfgbtral Tragedy.
Mexico, Ma, Nov. 21. Early yet
terday morning a horrible tragedy
occurred near Wellsville, a little vil
lage eighteen miles east of this place.
Thomas Portercheck, a Bohemian,
presumably in a fit of insanity, killed
his mother, a sister and a brother
with an axe. Another sister escaped
tnrougn tne window wnue be was
slaying his mother. ,
After completing the wholesale
slaughter the maniac threw a lamp
on the floor, lighted the spilled oil
with a match and committed suicide.
bunday afternoon Portercheck wu
discovered acting strangely and gave
indications that his mind was de
ranged. He labored under the hal
lucination that his neck was broken
and insisted that a physician be Bum
rooned.- His reltttiveii endeavored to
convince him of his error and tried to
get him to go to bed. He insisted on
Bitting up all night
xjaie ounaav nic-nt tne lamilv re
tired, leaving Thomas in a rocking
cnair. At a o ciock yesterday morn
ing his sister Mary was awakened by
m agonizing scream irom ner mother.
When she emerged from her bed
room she found her mother lying on
the floor, while Thomas was standing
over ner oranaisning an axe. , The
floor was . covered with blood, and
Irom an adjoining room the other
brother, James, could be heard moan
ing in the agony of death. The girl
ran through the house, and finding
au tne aoors locued, opened a win
dow and jumped to the ground. She
remained at the window and as her
brother Thomas maria no nftAmnt. t
i follow her, she stood and watched
him at his murderous work.
The maniac seized a can of
coal oil and after pourinp it
over the floor and furniture, Bet
it on fire. He then drew a butcher
knife across his throat and fell by
the side of his mother. The poor
girl attempted to extinguish the
flames, but they spread so quickly
that in less than ten minutes the
house was a mass of fire. The
screams of the girl awakened the
neighbors and they rushed to the
scene, but the flames had already
finished the work which the maniao
had commenced. When the blazing
timbers had cooled sufficiently to
allow a search of the ruined home
four bodies were found blackened
and charred. They were those of
Mrs. Portercheck. her youngest
daughter, and her sons, James and
Thomas. Investigation showed that
the mother, daughter and son James,
had been horribly mutilated by an
axe. It is believed that Thomas had
first killed his brother, then his Bis
ter and mother. It was probably his
intention to kill his sister Marv also.
The mother had been an invalid for
twelve years, and had been confined
to her bed during that time.
A Blf Steal Pipe Falls on m Skylight
and Causes Many Injuries.
Chicago. Nov. 21 A sixty-foot
steel smokestack was torn from the
University club buildinir bv the wind
to-day and, crjashin? into the
01 tne nanay Abstract building
Washington street, drove a shower of
two-inch glass into the office below,
dangerously injuring II. W. Nandy of
the abstract company and a clerk, cut
ting and bruising almost everyone of
the 125 people in the office, among
them ex-United States District At
torney Milchrist.
II. II. Handy, the millionaire presi
dent of the company, was cut in a
dozen places. A large fragment of
glass grazed his head, tearing a large
wound in the side of his face, both
hands and arms were cut and his
right shoulder was cut to the bone.
The noise of the crashing glass and
the cries of the alarmed clerks caused
a small panic in the building. Sev
eral young woman clerks and sten
ographers fainted and were crushed
in the crowd, but none wore danger
ously hurt
Berlin is to have an International
matrimonial paper, printed in three
NO. 24
Ihe leHulti of Monopoly and Inntiall
Merciless Greed.
Government Are Vet in the Oral;
of Selfish Politicians and the
Jjaws Oppress the
. v Poor.
What la the Voloe of God?
From the Labour Leader, edited by J.
Keir Ilardie, M.P., we clip the following
description of the industrial situation in
Great Britain, from an editorial ad
dressed to the English premier. Lord
As I write the November winds are
howling angrily, and the sky ia filled
with heavy masses of cold, watery clouds.
And tonight, and every night, millions of
British subjects will crouch together for
warmth in their wretched, tireless hovels.
or wander homeless in the streets of our
great cities. 1 have said millions ad
visedly. There must be considerably
over one million bread-winners out of
work. These, with their dependents,
their wives and helpless innocent chil
dren, will Buffer all the pangs of hunger
and cold. Many of them will die. Many
more will grow up physical and moral
wrecks. And the responsibility will rest
with the government of the day. Lord
Eosebery is himself a father. I appeal
to him as such. Supposehis daughter to
be in the position of the child of the out-of-work
artizan badly clad, hungry ,and
homeless, what would Lord Boseberry do
under such circumstances? I know what
I would do, and what I hope Lord Rose
bery would do. The parental instinct ia
strong in most o! us. Now, the govern
ment alone has power to adequately deal
with the case of the unemployed. Many
trade unions, some of the oldest, and
most skilled trades, to-wit, the engineers,
the compositors and the moulders, are
having their resources strained to the
uttermost in providing out-of-work pay
for their members. To is pay, however, is
only given for a limited number of weeks,
and then the number out of benefit has
to drop a step in the social scale and be
come the recipient of public charity.
Relief committees are at work in most of
the great centres, and are striving hero
ically to grapple with the question. Last
winter the local authorities were unable
to cope with the distress; this winter
they will be less so. Stone breaking,
oakum picking, and road mendinn have
each their limits, as have also the rate
paying powers of the citizens.
tst Jjord Kosebery should sav that
no feasible proposal has yet been put
forward for dealing with the question,
let me put this before him for his consid
eration. There is a congested district
(Ireland) board or commission, estab
lished by act of parliament, backed by
the national exchequer, and invested
with almost plenary powers for dealing;
with distress in certain parts of Ireland.
rseither the tor.v party nor the house of
lords would dare face the odium of re
jecting a bill on similar lines for Great
liritain. buch a commission would have
power to co-operate with parish, district.
county, city and town councils in carry
rying through schemes of afforestation.
reclaiming foreshores and establishing
co-operative colonies on what is pres
ently waste land. The editor of the
Daily Chronicle stated the other day that
there are 26,000,000 acres of waste land
waiting to be planted with trees, that '
ultimately work for 70,000 men would
be lound in this one source alone, and
that most of the 18,000.000 we pay
yearly for the timber grown in other
lands might be spent at home. Give the
commission plenary powers to acquire
land, join localities for this and other
like purposes, vote them what money is
needed for the work from year to year.
and in time two things will have hap
pened. Not only will the disgrace of the
unemployed be removed, but the money
spent will be yielding a rich return.
Even if it never did, the conserving of the
manhood of the nation would be a gain
jf'make a direct appeal to Lord Rosa-
berry on this point. I repeat that men .
are being robbed of manhood, women of
purity, and children of life by this one
cause, and the government which fails to
remove it goes forth to destruction. All
that is best in the nation will be arrayed
against it. When the nation is seething
in the whirlpool of heated political strife,
consideration of the claims of these poor
victims of our industrial system will be
lost sight of; but there is yet time to at
tend to them ere the strife be entered
upon. There is yet a "truce of God" ere
the fierce strife begins, and, in the inter
ests of our common humanity, I appeal
to Lord Rosebery to turn it to good ac
countLabour Leader, Glasgow, Scot
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