The news-herald. (Plattsmouth, Neb.) 1909-1911, January 10, 1910, Image 7

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SCIENTIFIC CULTURE
Dry Farmer Does Not Raise
Crops Without Water.
Great Difficulty with Which Agri
culturist In Semi-Arid Regions Has
to Contend Is Lack of Moist
ure When Needed.
While the term dry farming has
taken root so firmly that It seems Im
probable that any other name will
ever be applied to farming the lands
of the semi-arid region without irriga
tion, yet it is a term to which Mr.
H. D. Campbell "the father of dry
farming" etrenuouBly ijjects. "It
means nothing," says he, "it stands
for nothing but "inning in a dry coun
try and trusting to Providence for
results," From this it must not be in
ferred that Mr. Campbell puts little
trust In Providence. But he does be
lieve that faith without work is a
poor crop producer. Not only does he
believe in work, but that work must
be intelligent It must be performed
at the right time, In tho right way,
with a full understanding of the rea
sons for every step. Hence he prefers
to call it "scientific soil culture."
The dry farmer (so called) does not
"farm without water," as some have
expressed It. If he Is a follower of
the Campbell system he uses as much
water as any farmer In humid regions
or even in irrigation districts. He
differs from the ha snzard plains
farmer, from the irrigation farmer and
from the farmer in reg'ons in which
the rainfall Is abundant, simply In
the particular that he has learned how
to make use of water. He has learned
a lesson that all other farmers ought
to learn. If 3 Irrigation farmer
would learn It, ue would save the half
or three-fourths of his expense for wa
ter and the reservoirs now construct
ed would suffice for two or three times
as much land as at present. If the
farmer In humid regions would learn
it his crops would be insured agalrst
drought (which sometimes comes, even
in the most favorable places) and in
normal seasons his harves. would be
much greater. The principles of scien
tific soil culture are universal.
Throughout tho semi-arid region they
must be aprlied or failure is inev-
ltable. In other regions they may be
T neglected and a certain measure of
success yet be attained; but if they
ware applied everywhere the rewards
-tf the farmer would bo far greater.
The great difficulty with which the
farmer in the semi-arid region has to
contend Is the lack of moisture at the
time his crops need it. The rainfall
even thotgh It be but ten or twelve
Inches is sufficient If it wou'd come
at the right time. Sometimes it does,
and then the farmer who fol'ows the
traditional methods of humid regions
rejoices In good crors. More often
it does not, with the consequence of
crops ranging anywhere from fairly
good to total failures, depending upon
just how untimely the rains fall.
Under such conditions farming Is a
hazardous speculation and the usual
fate of speculators Is ruin. It Is the
claim of the exponents of scientific
soil culture that the element of risk
can be almost entirely removed; that
no matter at what time the rains
come, their moisture can be stored
In the soil, where It will be available
for plant growth whenever needed,
so that prolonged drought need never
cause disaster.
POULTRY NOTES.
Gather eggs every day and when a
new nest is found keep those separ
ate from the freshly gathered ones.
Have your buyer test them and pay
what thy are worth. This will not
lower the value of good eggs.
Keep out small and double yolked
eggs to use' at home. The very small
eggs bring a lower price In the mar
ket and the objection to the double
yolked ones is that they break easily
in shipping.
"Two hundred and forty egg" hens
are scarce and probably always will
be. They produce but few that come
up to their standard. Sometimes tho
k.fault is on the part of tho male.
Hatch ducks by incubator or use a
chicken hen.
Keep a supply of copperas water
where the fowls can obtain it.
Keep down the weeds and grass,
where the small chicks must go.
It is better to begin the poultry
business in the fall than In the
spring. Ileginners should remember
this.
Give the poultry houses a heavy
coat of whitewash. This Is one of the
best treatments for llco and mites.
Orange boxes make excellent nests.
They are cheap and can be burned up
If you are so neglectful as to allow
them to become lousy.
One rooster is sufficient for ten or
twelve hens or pullets.
Vegetables of some kind should bo
t fed the poultry the year 'round; cab
bage, potatoes, beets, turnips, etc.
Ash is the mineral portion of most
feeding stuffs, and is used largely in
making bones, eggshells, etc.
Tho man who said the best poultry
men on the farms are womon, knew
what ho was talking about.
Demands of Dry Farming,
Dry farming demands the establish
ment of a natural reservoir In tho
Boll by tho conservation of tho limited
rainfall or other form of moisture
through methods by which waste and
evaporation are prevented. In some
localities enough water can be con
served to crop annually In others
two years rainfall should be reserved
for the crop.
FARMING WITH LITTLE RAIN
Fundamental Ideas Are the Storage
of Limited Rainfall in the Soil
to Raise Crops.
(Ily Prof. J. D. Tlnsl.y, Soil riiyslclst &ni
Field Expert. New Mexico Ex
periment Bullion.)
Dry farming is a term which ha
been introduced In recent years to
designate an agricultural method dif
fering from the production of crops
by an abundance of rainfall and by
irrigation. This farming with a limit
ed rainfall, while having become wide
ly known only within the last few
years, is not a new thing in New Mex
ico, for In certain sections the In
dians and Mexicans have practiced it
for a long time, especially with corn
and beans. The Indians usually se
lect the sandy land at the mouths of
arroyos and thus take advantage of
the natural mulching of the sand
and tho irrigation from the flood
waters of the arroyos. The Mex
ican name of it is temporal farm
ing, to distinguish it from farming by
irrigation. Dry farming conditions
range from the conditions found In
humid climates to those where the
rainfall Is so small that only an oc
casional crop can be obtained. The
fundamental Ideas of dry farming are
the storage of the limited rainfall in
the soil and the growing of those va
rieties of crops which can mature with
a minimum amount of water. It does
not at all imply the growing of crops
without water. There are two prin
cipal cropping methods depending on
the amount of rain; that of growing
a crop every year and that of only
planting once in two years, Raving
the moisture from tho first to assist
the crop during the second season.
DRY FARMING IS HARD WORK
There Is No Mystic Spell to Produce
Pla-.t Life in Semi-Arid Dis
trictsLabor Needed.
In high altitudes, with 12 to 14
inches precipitation utilized under al
ternate or biennial systems, every
crop possible of production under irri
gation is profitably grown without Ir
rigation. With precipitation of 15 to 24
inches, many farmers In high alti
tudes are cropping annually.
Then again, many farmers under all
of the above named conditions are
falling continually.
Bankers fall when they refuse to
bank along legitimate lines.
Merchants fail when they attempt
to conduct their business without due
regard for the requirements of their
trade.
Farmers foil In every part of the
world Bnd under the most favorable
conditions unless they endeavor to
educate themselves Into the methods
necessary for their particular soil, cli
mate and markets.
Dry farming demands unceasing la
bor. There is no mystic spell to pro
duce plant life In a semi-arid district.
The price of success is work work
work and the expenditure of energy
enough to meet the Immediate require
ments of each section of land and
each crop.
An "easy-going" farmer Bhould not
attempt dry farming, neither should a
man who is financially unable to pur
chase the necessary machinery and to
support himself while trans'ormlng
his farm from the time-hardened prai
rie to a productive field.
VARIED USES CF THE EGG
Hen Produces One of the Most De
licious Morsels to the Hu
man Palate.
The uses of the egg are varied. As
a food it Is unexcelled. The Invalid
and the strong use the egg without
question as to its high nutritive qual
ities, and it has never yet been suc
cessfully substituted or adulterated.
Fggs vary greatly in flavor and
quality. Undesirable flavors may be
detected in tho egg after feeding tho
hens heavily on foods of strong or
high flavor. If fed In sufficient quan
tity, beef scrap will give an odor to
tho egg. It is Important that no beef
scraps should be fed except of good
quality. Onions will give an undesir
able flavor In the egg, and if a suf
ficient quantity bo eaten by the hen
the eggs will bo unfit for use.
It has been shown that certain
foods affect the co'or of the egg; feed
ing alfalfa liberally will give yolks of
high color.
The size of the egg is Influenced by
factors under the control of tho poul
tryman. Eggs from fowls having free
range where worms, Insects nnd green
food were obtained weighed more
than eggs from similar hens kept In
small yards.
Eggs for the fancy market should
weigh not less than 22 ounces per
dozen, with quality and color unob
jectionable The color of the shell is
immaterial, though In some markets
the white shell egg nnd In others the
brown shell egg brings the higher
price. There is no difference, how
ever, in quality between the brown
shell and the whlto shell egg.
Call It Failure.
Enemies of western progress openly
claim that dry farming Is and nl
ways must be a failure. Muny who
have given the matter no serious
thought believe from hearsay that
the dry farmers must fall. Many dry
farmers have failed but dry farming
never.
Limited Rainfall.
Dry farming so-called Is farm op
eration under limited rainfall In dis
tricts where Irrigation wnter cannot
be obtained or where the supply of
Irrigation water Is Inadequate to meet
the requirements of the acreage.
tiok
HALLEY'S COMET IN SIGHT
How Astronomers Have Predicted
Coming of Astral Derelict Accu
rately Some Strange Facts.
Halley's comet again is approach
ing the earth after an absence of 75
years. While swinging around In
space It visited a region that is per
haps 50.000,000 miles more distant
than the outermost planet of the so
lar system. Although It Is not sched
uled to arrive at Its perihelion the
point least distant from the sun un
til July 19, 1912. or possibly the lat
ter part of 1911, depending on the
amount of planetary disturbance. It
probably will be visible to tho naked
eye in a short time.
After an exposure of an hour re
cently In Heidelberg, Germany, a pho
tographic plate showed the comet as
a nebula of the sixteenth magnitude.
Another photograph has Just been se
cured of tho comet at the Yerkes ob
servatory, near Williams Bay, Wis.
IT
Course of Comet.
Solar bodies above the seventh mag
nitude cannot be seen without the
bid of a telescope.
Extraordinary attention is being
paid to the return of this celebrated
comet. It Is of particular Interest to
scientists because it was the first
known to travel In a closed orbit. Its
brilliancy, sensational size, records of
its returns the consternation once
spread through the world by the be
lief that it would destroy the earth
make It the most famous comet in
history.
In 1682, In the reign of Charles II.
of England, a comet of extraordinary
size nppcared. which was observed
by Newton, Halley and other astrono
mers of the time. Halley followed its
course among the stars and. compar
ing his observations with the records
of previous comets, came to the con
clusion that the comets of 1436. 1531
and 1607 were only different appear
ances of the same object. He staked
bis reputation on a prediction that
the comet would return in about 75
years. True to this prediction, it did
appear in 1758, when Edmund Halley
had been sleeping in his grave for 16
years. Tho reason the name of Pa
lltsch, a Saxon peasant, has been pre
served to posterity Is that his eye
was the first to catch sight of the re
turning comet. It was on Christmas
night. 1758, he saw the comet and
cheated the professional astronomers
of the honor.
The first recorded appearance of
Halley's comet was B. C. 130. when
it was believed to herald the birth of
Mlthrldates. In 1066 It was seen
equal to tho full moon In size. In its
appearance in 1456 its tail reached
from the horizon to the zenith.
The following facts connected with
the appearance of the comet In 1835
are taken from Herschel's "Outlines
of Astronomy."
I It developed no tall until October
2 and on that day the nucleus was
observed to become suddenly bright-
er and to throw out a Jet of light
from its interior part.
Its tail attained the greatest length
of 20 degrees October 15, and had en
tirely disappeared before its perihel
ion passage of November 16.
At tho anterior luminous Jet. mean
while, singular and capricious
changes succeeded one another with
such rapidity that on no two succes
sive nights were the appearances
alike. At one time It was Elngle. at
another time fan-shaped or swallow
tailed, while nt other times two,
three or even more Jets were darted
from the comet la different direc
tions. In receding from the sun It passed
through a scries of changes scurcely
less remarkable and finally disap
peared May C. 136.
SCIENCE NOTES.
Lake Superior, the largest body of
fresh water in tho world, Is about
equal to Ireland In area.
The eyes of tho chameleon move In
dependently of one nnother.
A loaf of bread will keep much long
oi If placed lu a covered crock than
tn a tin box
7 3hv
SUN SPOTS HIT TELEGRAPH
Baltimore Man Locates Cause of Re
cent Electrical Disturbance
Tells of Discovery.
In un Interview published in the
Baltimore American Mr. Justice Stnhu
declared that he believed the recent
disturbance In telegraphic communi
cation was more than likely due to
sun spots. As a result he searched
Group of Sun Spots.
the sun surface and discovered the
spots, as ho expected. In speaking of
the matter he snld:
"On hearing of tho appearance of tho
aurora und other phenomena of an elec
trical nnd magnetic nature I Immediate
ly suspected a large sun spot about to
appear. I was not surprised when I
discovered a magnificent group of
spots measuring 60.000 by 50,1100 miles,
and showing unmistakable signs of
solar storms, their cyclonic nature be
ing clearly shown by Uo of the spots
in the group. A more extended ob
servation will show that these cyclonic
spots resolve about n common center
of disturbance on tho sun and make
their electrical and magnetic nature
known on the earth by wireless mes
sages from the sun In Increased au
roral displays and disturbance of mag
nectic instruments. The sun dlsturbes
tho aether of tho solar system and
causes during the duration of such a
large huh spot, a disturbance of tho
more or less evenly balanced magnetic
conditions of the earth. Besides the
large group of spots, smaller spots are
also visible by the aid of the telescope,
together with considerable faculao.
The darkest portion of a sun spot is
termed the nucleus; the next darker,
the umbra, and the highest portion,
the penumbra. It Is known that the
sun revolves upon Its axis In about 26
days, representing at tho equator a
velocity of 219 miles per minute, and
this spinning through the aether
causes tremendous disturbances In the
solar region, especially during sun
spot outbreaks. We can Imagine what
a great dynamic machine this must be
when we see what a powerful electric
current is generated In ail our dyna
mos used In electric lighting and drlv-
View of Sun Spot.
ing electro motors running machinery
and cars. The electric field all through
the solar system is disturbed. We
cannot but be surprised at the few
electrical storms we have experienced
In Baltimore this past summer.
TESTING THE THERMOMETER
Various Processes Through Which
They Are Put by Weather Bureau
to Standardize Them,
Each day at the weather bureau in
Washington the thermometers re
ceived from various manufacturers
throughout the country are put
through the test of standardizing
them.
The various processes through which
the bulbs pass before they are labeled
"accurate" are easy, Inasmuch as
there is practically little sclentlflo
work attached to tho test, says Har
per's Weekly. When a thermometer
Is first handed to the man In the test
ing room It Is dipped Into a vat filled
with a compound far below the freez
ing point. It Is thrust In at the point
where it happens to bo at tho time,
and worked up and down until the de
gree of the compound Is reached. Hav
ing then recorded the lowest tempera
ture the process of testing for tho
highest Is begun. This is Just as sim
ple as testing for the low temperature.
Tho bulb Is dipped Into a vat of wa
ter, first at 60 degrees. Then It Is
worked gradually until 130 degrees is
reached. If the mercury In tho bulb
will Indicate 130 degrees, further test
ing Is unnecessary, because that Is a
tolerably wurm temperature, and one
seldom. If ever, reached by natural
heat.
A thermometer the bulb of which
contains mercury will not register be
low 28 degrees below zero; that Is to
say, mercury will freezo at that point.
Of course, In this country little use Is
found for n thermometer showing
more than 28 degrees below zero, but
In the far north they are of course
necessary. Such Instruments, bow
ever, contain spirits In the bulbs In
stead of mercury; but even this fluid
becomes sluggish when 40 or 60 below
zero Is recorded, and It will seldom
show GO below.
A mill will bo establli-hed In Swe
den for pinuing yarn from paper
v0
m
r THE TkriCTTCPTI 7R
Mr. V'liiiam A. Had ford will answer
questions nnd nlve advlcn l-'KKli OV
COST on all subjects ptitulnitu to the
subject ot building fur tho readers of
this paper. On art-mint of his wlclo expe
rience an Editor, Author and Manufac
turer, he Ih, without doubt, the highest
authority on all then subjects. Address
all Inquiries to William A. Ttadford, No.
194 Fifth Ave., Chicago. 111., and only
enclose two-cent stamp for reply.
For the small falmly of simple
tastes, nothing could be more appro
priate for a residence than a bunga
low built according to the design hero
shown.
This Is a bungalow designed In the
true western and southern spirit, but
so modi Hod ns tn make it a substan
tial and comfortable residence for the
severest climates.
The exterior Ih sided with boards.
Th Inches wide, left with a rough finish
and stained a soft olive green. This
style of siding is very effective In
Porch
F3tD Rm.
-.Kit
.KlTCHLN
OXIO'0'
Dmng Rm
130X14 0"
H
Hall
Foot PUD
bungalow work and Is probably the
cheapest of any of the styles of siding.
Shingles are Just about as cheap, as
far as the material Is concerned; but
MUCH GC0D IN HERO WORSHIP
Admiration of Other's Good Points
Bound to Lead to Desire for
Emulation.
Hero worship Is inborn in man. It
began with the beginning of the hu
man race, and will end only with its
finish. As Carlylo once put It: "It is
the joy of man's heart to admire
where he can; nothing so lifts him
from all his mean imprisonments,
were it only for moments, as true ad
miration." Nor is it only the great
and good who admire what Is really
admirable. Kven the vicious respect
In others the flno qualities which they
themselves lack. In fact, hypocrisy
Itself Is but the tribute which vice
pays to virtue. Deprived of the genu
ine artlclo, the hypocrite takes unto
himself tho counterfeit; assuming or
aping the noble traits which command
the respect of thinking men.
Since the world has ever had, and
ever will have, Its heroes or Ideals,
clearly it is of prime Importance that
it have none but the very best placed
before it. Truly worthy heroes and
Ideals are among the world's most
prolific sources of great deeds. It goes
without saying that the example of
generals like Napolcou and our own
Washington served, as well as any
other cause, to pur on their men to
feats of valor when the army's cour
age was on the point of falling. And,
tiot to enter luto too many details, tho
same holds true In every other walk
or department of life. It Is the pace
set by the lenders, tho examplars In
a word, by tho heroes that urges on
their admirers to attempt tho per
formance of worthy, if not of positive
ly great, deeds. They may not bo
able in most cases, they will not be
able to attain to tho Ideal; to rival
tho achievements of their idols. Hut
at all events, it is well to aim high.
I.Ike the prudent mnrskman, wo must
make a little allowance for tho law of
gravity, and tho consequent drop In
distance. If tho hero-worshiper can
not equal tho brilliant nets of his
hero, nt least he can follow him at a
respectable distance, and even so
much is a great gain both for him
self personally and for society at
lurge.
How He Does It.
Hodge There's a man who doesn't
let the grass grow under his feet.
Dodge Ho looks slow enough.
Hodge He Is, but he works In a
quarry.
, k Calf!- 4, w , y-,' ' - -tf"
r
joTS Hall ;
Cl I Lmnc Rm. fl
fa 1
Porch
HOME
W2A.RADF0RD
EDITOR
the high labor cost of applying thr.nt,
bring the total cost of the job up
equal to that of finished clapboarding.
The extra thickness of this rough Hid
ing is in its favor also where warmth
and durability are of Importance.
The gable ends of this bungalow ar
finished with cement piaster of the
natural gray color and applied with n
pr bh'e dash finish. Four inch Btrlpa, ?4
Inches thick, are used to divide tho
plaster coat into panels, giving nil
English "half timber" effect. Thoart
strips should be securely nailed to tho
sheathing boarda, through the cement
plaster, beforo the same . has hard
cued.
As will be seen from tho floor pl.ui
the Interior arrangement of thin cosy
little bungalow leaves little to bo de
sired. There are live good rooms bed
sides vestibule, pantry, bathroom, two
closets nnd tho hall.
Tho living room Is 20x14 feet and in
very well lighted. It has a practical
fireplace that is meant for business,
in the middle of ono end. There aro
peats built in on each sldo of tho
fireplace and under the high window.
The dining room Is a very attrac
tive appartment, separated from tho '
living room by an nrthitle columned
opening. A equaro bay window with
casement sash Ih a feature of tho
room.
The kitchen la arranged to navo
steps. It is not too large, being 11x10
feet, and is light and airy.
The sleeping end of this design id
arranged to give a surprising amount
of privacy for a bungalow. Two good
sized chambers aro provided, each
with a clothes closet. Tho bathroom,
opening off the ball, Is located be
tween tho two bedrooms.
The estimated cost of this bunga
low, using hardwood floors and yellow
pine trim, has been placed at (2,100.
GOCD JOKE ON PORTLY MAN
Weeks of Abstinence from the Pleas
ures of the Table Proved Urv
necessary.
Gaston Reeves, weighing In tho
neighborhood of three hundrd pounds.
and the most famous feeder in New
York, awoke one day with a stitch In
his side. The stitch hurt and Keevca
went to a doctor about It.
The doctor examined, diagnosed,
consulted nnd finally said there must
bo an operation, for, although there
was nothing so very bad the matter,
the trouble might develop nnd It wat
better to have the cause removed.
"But," said the doctor, "before I can
operate you must get rid of a lot ot
that flesh."
"How?" asked Reeves.
"Train it off," said the doctor. "You
must do it if you do not want to
shorten your life. There is no telling
when you will have to bo cut."
Reeves went to Muldoon's, where
tho fare Is plain nnd the work Is hard.
He beat down his longing for fancy
food, stuck sturdily to his task of get
ting rid of flesh, worked harder than
he ever did in bla life, didn't have a
bit of fun, and was constantly tor-!
mented with thoughts of the good
thlrgs to eat ho was misting. i,
Finally, he had taken off 69 pounds.'
He went to tho doctor. "Now," ho
said, "I have taken off 6!) pounds of
flesh after torments of the damned,
but I am hard as nails, so go ahead
with tho operation, so I can begin to
live again."
Whereupon the doctor mnde nnother
examination, told Mr. Reeves ho had
b?en mistaken and that an operation
wasn't necessary after all. Saturday
Evening Tost.
Mary and Her Beau.
It la somewhat startling to learn
that Mary's beau expects Mary tohelu
support him when tho twain are wed
ded, nnd Instead of becoming sole mas
ter of the estnb'lHhniont, tho provider
of its needs, however humble, weo
wlflo must turn to nnd work nt tho
same employment which is giving her
board and clothes at the present tlmo.
"Yes. Mary," says Mary's beau, "you
earn $10 a week typing for the Chick
en Feed Company, nnd I am now get
ting eight dollars for clerking In Old
Grimes' store. We ought to be able
to live on $18 a week. So let's havo
tho wedding Thanksgiving day."
"Ye-es," sighs Mary. ltoston Herald.