The news-herald. (Plattsmouth, Neb.) 1909-1911, January 10, 1910, Image 7
2 1 SCIENTIFIC CULTURE Dry Farmer Does Not Raise Crops Without Water. Great Difficulty with Which Agri culturist In Semi-Arid Regions Has to Contend Is Lack of Moist ure When Needed. While the term dry farming has taken root so firmly that It seems Im probable that any other name will ever be applied to farming the lands of the semi-arid region without irriga tion, yet it is a term to which Mr. H. D. Campbell "the father of dry farming" etrenuouBly ijjects. "It means nothing," says he, "it stands for nothing but "inning in a dry coun try and trusting to Providence for results," From this it must not be in ferred that Mr. Campbell puts little trust In Providence. But he does be lieve that faith without work is a poor crop producer. Not only does he believe in work, but that work must be intelligent It must be performed at the right time, In tho right way, with a full understanding of the rea sons for every step. Hence he prefers to call it "scientific soil culture." The dry farmer (so called) does not "farm without water," as some have expressed It. If he Is a follower of the Campbell system he uses as much water as any farmer In humid regions or even in irrigation districts. He differs from the ha snzard plains farmer, from the irrigation farmer and from the farmer in reg'ons in which the rainfall Is abundant, simply In the particular that he has learned how to make use of water. He has learned a lesson that all other farmers ought to learn. If 3 Irrigation farmer would learn It, ue would save the half or three-fourths of his expense for wa ter and the reservoirs now construct ed would suffice for two or three times as much land as at present. If the farmer In humid regions would learn it his crops would be insured agalrst drought (which sometimes comes, even in the most favorable places) and in normal seasons his harves. would be much greater. The principles of scien tific soil culture are universal. Throughout tho semi-arid region they must be aprlied or failure is inev- ltable. In other regions they may be T neglected and a certain measure of success yet be attained; but if they ware applied everywhere the rewards -tf the farmer would bo far greater. The great difficulty with which the farmer in the semi-arid region has to contend Is the lack of moisture at the time his crops need it. The rainfall even thotgh It be but ten or twelve Inches is sufficient If it wou'd come at the right time. Sometimes it does, and then the farmer who fol'ows the traditional methods of humid regions rejoices In good crors. More often it does not, with the consequence of crops ranging anywhere from fairly good to total failures, depending upon just how untimely the rains fall. Under such conditions farming Is a hazardous speculation and the usual fate of speculators Is ruin. It Is the claim of the exponents of scientific soil culture that the element of risk can be almost entirely removed; that no matter at what time the rains come, their moisture can be stored In the soil, where It will be available for plant growth whenever needed, so that prolonged drought need never cause disaster. POULTRY NOTES. Gather eggs every day and when a new nest is found keep those separ ate from the freshly gathered ones. Have your buyer test them and pay what thy are worth. This will not lower the value of good eggs. Keep out small and double yolked eggs to use' at home. The very small eggs bring a lower price In the mar ket and the objection to the double yolked ones is that they break easily in shipping. "Two hundred and forty egg" hens are scarce and probably always will be. They produce but few that come up to their standard. Sometimes tho k.fault is on the part of tho male. Hatch ducks by incubator or use a chicken hen. Keep a supply of copperas water where the fowls can obtain it. Keep down the weeds and grass, where the small chicks must go. It is better to begin the poultry business in the fall than In the spring. Ileginners should remember this. Give the poultry houses a heavy coat of whitewash. This Is one of the best treatments for llco and mites. Orange boxes make excellent nests. They are cheap and can be burned up If you are so neglectful as to allow them to become lousy. One rooster is sufficient for ten or twelve hens or pullets. Vegetables of some kind should bo t fed the poultry the year 'round; cab bage, potatoes, beets, turnips, etc. Ash is the mineral portion of most feeding stuffs, and is used largely in making bones, eggshells, etc. Tho man who said the best poultry men on the farms are womon, knew what ho was talking about. Demands of Dry Farming, Dry farming demands the establish ment of a natural reservoir In tho Boll by tho conservation of tho limited rainfall or other form of moisture through methods by which waste and evaporation are prevented. In some localities enough water can be con served to crop annually In others two years rainfall should be reserved for the crop. FARMING WITH LITTLE RAIN Fundamental Ideas Are the Storage of Limited Rainfall in the Soil to Raise Crops. (Ily Prof. J. D. Tlnsl.y, Soil riiyslclst &ni Field Expert. New Mexico Ex periment Bullion.) Dry farming is a term which ha been introduced In recent years to designate an agricultural method dif fering from the production of crops by an abundance of rainfall and by irrigation. This farming with a limit ed rainfall, while having become wide ly known only within the last few years, is not a new thing in New Mex ico, for In certain sections the In dians and Mexicans have practiced it for a long time, especially with corn and beans. The Indians usually se lect the sandy land at the mouths of arroyos and thus take advantage of the natural mulching of the sand and tho irrigation from the flood waters of the arroyos. The Mex ican name of it is temporal farm ing, to distinguish it from farming by irrigation. Dry farming conditions range from the conditions found In humid climates to those where the rainfall Is so small that only an oc casional crop can be obtained. The fundamental Ideas of dry farming are the storage of the limited rainfall in the soil and the growing of those va rieties of crops which can mature with a minimum amount of water. It does not at all imply the growing of crops without water. There are two prin cipal cropping methods depending on the amount of rain; that of growing a crop every year and that of only planting once in two years, Raving the moisture from tho first to assist the crop during the second season. DRY FARMING IS HARD WORK There Is No Mystic Spell to Produce Pla-.t Life in Semi-Arid Dis trictsLabor Needed. In high altitudes, with 12 to 14 inches precipitation utilized under al ternate or biennial systems, every crop possible of production under irri gation is profitably grown without Ir rigation. With precipitation of 15 to 24 inches, many farmers In high alti tudes are cropping annually. Then again, many farmers under all of the above named conditions are falling continually. Bankers fall when they refuse to bank along legitimate lines. Merchants fail when they attempt to conduct their business without due regard for the requirements of their trade. Farmers foil In every part of the world Bnd under the most favorable conditions unless they endeavor to educate themselves Into the methods necessary for their particular soil, cli mate and markets. Dry farming demands unceasing la bor. There is no mystic spell to pro duce plant life In a semi-arid district. The price of success is work work work and the expenditure of energy enough to meet the Immediate require ments of each section of land and each crop. An "easy-going" farmer Bhould not attempt dry farming, neither should a man who is financially unable to pur chase the necessary machinery and to support himself while trans'ormlng his farm from the time-hardened prai rie to a productive field. VARIED USES CF THE EGG Hen Produces One of the Most De licious Morsels to the Hu man Palate. The uses of the egg are varied. As a food it Is unexcelled. The Invalid and the strong use the egg without question as to its high nutritive qual ities, and it has never yet been suc cessfully substituted or adulterated. Fggs vary greatly in flavor and quality. Undesirable flavors may be detected in tho egg after feeding tho hens heavily on foods of strong or high flavor. If fed In sufficient quan tity, beef scrap will give an odor to tho egg. It is Important that no beef scraps should be fed except of good quality. Onions will give an undesir able flavor In the egg, and if a suf ficient quantity bo eaten by the hen the eggs will bo unfit for use. It has been shown that certain foods affect the co'or of the egg; feed ing alfalfa liberally will give yolks of high color. The size of the egg is Influenced by factors under the control of tho poul tryman. Eggs from fowls having free range where worms, Insects nnd green food were obtained weighed more than eggs from similar hens kept In small yards. Eggs for the fancy market should weigh not less than 22 ounces per dozen, with quality and color unob jectionable The color of the shell is immaterial, though In some markets the white shell egg nnd In others the brown shell egg brings the higher price. There is no difference, how ever, in quality between the brown shell and the whlto shell egg. Call It Failure. Enemies of western progress openly claim that dry farming Is and nl ways must be a failure. Muny who have given the matter no serious thought believe from hearsay that the dry farmers must fall. Many dry farmers have failed but dry farming never. Limited Rainfall. Dry farming so-called Is farm op eration under limited rainfall In dis tricts where Irrigation wnter cannot be obtained or where the supply of Irrigation water Is Inadequate to meet the requirements of the acreage. tiok HALLEY'S COMET IN SIGHT How Astronomers Have Predicted Coming of Astral Derelict Accu rately Some Strange Facts. Halley's comet again is approach ing the earth after an absence of 75 years. While swinging around In space It visited a region that is per haps 50.000,000 miles more distant than the outermost planet of the so lar system. Although It Is not sched uled to arrive at Its perihelion the point least distant from the sun un til July 19, 1912. or possibly the lat ter part of 1911, depending on the amount of planetary disturbance. It probably will be visible to tho naked eye in a short time. After an exposure of an hour re cently In Heidelberg, Germany, a pho tographic plate showed the comet as a nebula of the sixteenth magnitude. Another photograph has Just been se cured of tho comet at the Yerkes ob servatory, near Williams Bay, Wis. IT Course of Comet. Solar bodies above the seventh mag nitude cannot be seen without the bid of a telescope. Extraordinary attention is being paid to the return of this celebrated comet. It Is of particular Interest to scientists because it was the first known to travel In a closed orbit. Its brilliancy, sensational size, records of its returns the consternation once spread through the world by the be lief that it would destroy the earth make It the most famous comet in history. In 1682, In the reign of Charles II. of England, a comet of extraordinary size nppcared. which was observed by Newton, Halley and other astrono mers of the time. Halley followed its course among the stars and. compar ing his observations with the records of previous comets, came to the con clusion that the comets of 1436. 1531 and 1607 were only different appear ances of the same object. He staked bis reputation on a prediction that the comet would return in about 75 years. True to this prediction, it did appear in 1758, when Edmund Halley had been sleeping in his grave for 16 years. Tho reason the name of Pa lltsch, a Saxon peasant, has been pre served to posterity Is that his eye was the first to catch sight of the re turning comet. It was on Christmas night. 1758, he saw the comet and cheated the professional astronomers of the honor. The first recorded appearance of Halley's comet was B. C. 130. when it was believed to herald the birth of Mlthrldates. In 1066 It was seen equal to tho full moon In size. In its appearance in 1456 its tail reached from the horizon to the zenith. The following facts connected with the appearance of the comet In 1835 are taken from Herschel's "Outlines of Astronomy." I It developed no tall until October 2 and on that day the nucleus was observed to become suddenly bright- er and to throw out a Jet of light from its interior part. Its tail attained the greatest length of 20 degrees October 15, and had en tirely disappeared before its perihel ion passage of November 16. At tho anterior luminous Jet. mean while, singular and capricious changes succeeded one another with such rapidity that on no two succes sive nights were the appearances alike. At one time It was Elngle. at another time fan-shaped or swallow tailed, while nt other times two, three or even more Jets were darted from the comet la different direc tions. In receding from the sun It passed through a scries of changes scurcely less remarkable and finally disap peared May C. 136. SCIENCE NOTES. Lake Superior, the largest body of fresh water in tho world, Is about equal to Ireland In area. The eyes of tho chameleon move In dependently of one nnother. A loaf of bread will keep much long oi If placed lu a covered crock than tn a tin box 7 3hv SUN SPOTS HIT TELEGRAPH Baltimore Man Locates Cause of Re cent Electrical Disturbance Tells of Discovery. In un Interview published in the Baltimore American Mr. Justice Stnhu declared that he believed the recent disturbance In telegraphic communi cation was more than likely due to sun spots. As a result he searched Group of Sun Spots. the sun surface and discovered the spots, as ho expected. In speaking of the matter he snld: "On hearing of tho appearance of tho aurora und other phenomena of an elec trical nnd magnetic nature I Immediate ly suspected a large sun spot about to appear. I was not surprised when I discovered a magnificent group of spots measuring 60.000 by 50,1100 miles, and showing unmistakable signs of solar storms, their cyclonic nature be ing clearly shown by Uo of the spots in the group. A more extended ob servation will show that these cyclonic spots resolve about n common center of disturbance on tho sun and make their electrical and magnetic nature known on the earth by wireless mes sages from the sun In Increased au roral displays and disturbance of mag nectic instruments. The sun dlsturbes tho aether of tho solar system and causes during the duration of such a large huh spot, a disturbance of tho more or less evenly balanced magnetic conditions of the earth. Besides the large group of spots, smaller spots are also visible by the aid of the telescope, together with considerable faculao. The darkest portion of a sun spot is termed the nucleus; the next darker, the umbra, and the highest portion, the penumbra. It Is known that the sun revolves upon Its axis In about 26 days, representing at tho equator a velocity of 219 miles per minute, and this spinning through the aether causes tremendous disturbances In the solar region, especially during sun spot outbreaks. We can Imagine what a great dynamic machine this must be when we see what a powerful electric current is generated In ail our dyna mos used In electric lighting and drlv- View of Sun Spot. ing electro motors running machinery and cars. The electric field all through the solar system is disturbed. We cannot but be surprised at the few electrical storms we have experienced In Baltimore this past summer. TESTING THE THERMOMETER Various Processes Through Which They Are Put by Weather Bureau to Standardize Them, Each day at the weather bureau in Washington the thermometers re ceived from various manufacturers throughout the country are put through the test of standardizing them. The various processes through which the bulbs pass before they are labeled "accurate" are easy, Inasmuch as there is practically little sclentlflo work attached to tho test, says Har per's Weekly. When a thermometer Is first handed to the man In the test ing room It Is dipped Into a vat filled with a compound far below the freez ing point. It Is thrust In at the point where it happens to bo at tho time, and worked up and down until the de gree of the compound Is reached. Hav ing then recorded the lowest tempera ture the process of testing for tho highest Is begun. This is Just as sim ple as testing for the low temperature. Tho bulb Is dipped Into a vat of wa ter, first at 60 degrees. Then It Is worked gradually until 130 degrees is reached. If the mercury In tho bulb will Indicate 130 degrees, further test ing Is unnecessary, because that Is a tolerably wurm temperature, and one seldom. If ever, reached by natural heat. A thermometer the bulb of which contains mercury will not register be low 28 degrees below zero; that Is to say, mercury will freezo at that point. Of course, In this country little use Is found for n thermometer showing more than 28 degrees below zero, but In the far north they are of course necessary. Such Instruments, bow ever, contain spirits In the bulbs In stead of mercury; but even this fluid becomes sluggish when 40 or 60 below zero Is recorded, and It will seldom show GO below. A mill will bo establli-hed In Swe den for pinuing yarn from paper v0 m r THE TkriCTTCPTI 7R Mr. V'liiiam A. Had ford will answer questions nnd nlve advlcn l-'KKli OV COST on all subjects ptitulnitu to the subject ot building fur tho readers of this paper. On art-mint of his wlclo expe rience an Editor, Author and Manufac turer, he Ih, without doubt, the highest authority on all then subjects. Address all Inquiries to William A. Ttadford, No. 194 Fifth Ave., Chicago. 111., and only enclose two-cent stamp for reply. For the small falmly of simple tastes, nothing could be more appro priate for a residence than a bunga low built according to the design hero shown. This Is a bungalow designed In the true western and southern spirit, but so modi Hod ns tn make it a substan tial and comfortable residence for the severest climates. The exterior Ih sided with boards. Th Inches wide, left with a rough finish and stained a soft olive green. This style of siding is very effective In Porch F3tD Rm. -.Kit .KlTCHLN OXIO'0' Dmng Rm 130X14 0" H Hall Foot PUD bungalow work and Is probably the cheapest of any of the styles of siding. Shingles are Just about as cheap, as far as the material Is concerned; but MUCH GC0D IN HERO WORSHIP Admiration of Other's Good Points Bound to Lead to Desire for Emulation. Hero worship Is inborn in man. It began with the beginning of the hu man race, and will end only with its finish. As Carlylo once put It: "It is the joy of man's heart to admire where he can; nothing so lifts him from all his mean imprisonments, were it only for moments, as true ad miration." Nor is it only the great and good who admire what Is really admirable. Kven the vicious respect In others the flno qualities which they themselves lack. In fact, hypocrisy Itself Is but the tribute which vice pays to virtue. Deprived of the genu ine artlclo, the hypocrite takes unto himself tho counterfeit; assuming or aping the noble traits which command the respect of thinking men. Since the world has ever had, and ever will have, Its heroes or Ideals, clearly it is of prime Importance that it have none but the very best placed before it. Truly worthy heroes and Ideals are among the world's most prolific sources of great deeds. It goes without saying that the example of generals like Napolcou and our own Washington served, as well as any other cause, to pur on their men to feats of valor when the army's cour age was on the point of falling. And, tiot to enter luto too many details, tho same holds true In every other walk or department of life. It Is the pace set by the lenders, tho examplars In a word, by tho heroes that urges on their admirers to attempt tho per formance of worthy, if not of positive ly great, deeds. They may not bo able in most cases, they will not be able to attain to tho Ideal; to rival tho achievements of their idols. Hut at all events, it is well to aim high. I.Ike the prudent mnrskman, wo must make a little allowance for tho law of gravity, and tho consequent drop In distance. If tho hero-worshiper can not equal tho brilliant nets of his hero, nt least he can follow him at a respectable distance, and even so much is a great gain both for him self personally and for society at lurge. How He Does It. Hodge There's a man who doesn't let the grass grow under his feet. Dodge Ho looks slow enough. Hodge He Is, but he works In a quarry. , k Calf!- 4, w , y-,' ' - -tf" r joTS Hall ; Cl I Lmnc Rm. fl fa 1 Porch HOME W2A.RADF0RD EDITOR the high labor cost of applying thr.nt, bring the total cost of the job up equal to that of finished clapboarding. The extra thickness of this rough Hid ing is in its favor also where warmth and durability are of Importance. The gable ends of this bungalow ar finished with cement piaster of the natural gray color and applied with n pr bh'e dash finish. Four inch Btrlpa, ?4 Inches thick, are used to divide tho plaster coat into panels, giving nil English "half timber" effect. Thoart strips should be securely nailed to tho sheathing boarda, through the cement plaster, beforo the same . has hard cued. As will be seen from tho floor pl.ui the Interior arrangement of thin cosy little bungalow leaves little to bo de sired. There are live good rooms bed sides vestibule, pantry, bathroom, two closets nnd tho hall. Tho living room Is 20x14 feet and in very well lighted. It has a practical fireplace that is meant for business, in the middle of ono end. There aro peats built in on each sldo of tho fireplace and under the high window. The dining room Is a very attrac tive appartment, separated from tho ' living room by an nrthitle columned opening. A equaro bay window with casement sash Ih a feature of tho room. The kitchen la arranged to navo steps. It is not too large, being 11x10 feet, and is light and airy. The sleeping end of this design id arranged to give a surprising amount of privacy for a bungalow. Two good sized chambers aro provided, each with a clothes closet. Tho bathroom, opening off the ball, Is located be tween tho two bedrooms. The estimated cost of this bunga low, using hardwood floors and yellow pine trim, has been placed at (2,100. GOCD JOKE ON PORTLY MAN Weeks of Abstinence from the Pleas ures of the Table Proved Urv necessary. Gaston Reeves, weighing In tho neighborhood of three hundrd pounds. and the most famous feeder in New York, awoke one day with a stitch In his side. The stitch hurt and Keevca went to a doctor about It. The doctor examined, diagnosed, consulted nnd finally said there must bo an operation, for, although there was nothing so very bad the matter, the trouble might develop nnd It wat better to have the cause removed. "But," said the doctor, "before I can operate you must get rid of a lot ot that flesh." "How?" asked Reeves. "Train it off," said the doctor. "You must do it if you do not want to shorten your life. There is no telling when you will have to bo cut." Reeves went to Muldoon's, where tho fare Is plain nnd the work Is hard. He beat down his longing for fancy food, stuck sturdily to his task of get ting rid of flesh, worked harder than he ever did in bla life, didn't have a bit of fun, and was constantly tor-! mented with thoughts of the good thlrgs to eat ho was misting. i, Finally, he had taken off 69 pounds.' He went to tho doctor. "Now," ho said, "I have taken off 6!) pounds of flesh after torments of the damned, but I am hard as nails, so go ahead with tho operation, so I can begin to live again." Whereupon the doctor mnde nnother examination, told Mr. Reeves ho had b?en mistaken and that an operation wasn't necessary after all. Saturday Evening Tost. Mary and Her Beau. It la somewhat startling to learn that Mary's beau expects Mary tohelu support him when tho twain are wed ded, nnd Instead of becoming sole mas ter of the estnb'lHhniont, tho provider of its needs, however humble, weo wlflo must turn to nnd work nt tho same employment which is giving her board and clothes at the present tlmo. "Yes. Mary," says Mary's beau, "you earn $10 a week typing for the Chick en Feed Company, nnd I am now get ting eight dollars for clerking In Old Grimes' store. We ought to be able to live on $18 a week. So let's havo tho wedding Thanksgiving day." "Ye-es," sighs Mary. ltoston Herald.