The news-herald. (Plattsmouth, Neb.) 1909-1911, September 02, 1909, Image 6

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    To Memory Dear.
ifji r?K m I ITA TrV-ferMj-E" TV ITT A 1
7 7T-S f
"Sines I've come back I Cud
forgotten by n!l my friends."
"Why didn't you burrow money of
them before you went away?' Stray
vs. u
10 I'NDEHSTAND how an enrtn-
T quake sends Its quiverings and
I pulsations through the earth it
win be D'.iptul to review m a
simple- way our knowledge of
wave nnd wave motion. All writ
ers on earthquakes, both ancient
nnd liioilern, beginning with Tba
lcs nnd ending with Milne, ngrce
that there are waves of long peri
ods nnd waves of short periods,
a period being the time required
for each complete vibration.
Kverhody is familiar with what happens
whin a Hone Is dropped into a quiet pool of
water. From the center of disturbance there
radiates in .every direction little crebts and
tronclis In ever-widening circles. These circles
gradually diminish In height as their dlstanco
from the center increases and tinallydle away.
If they meet u rcllecting surface they are sent
back again until the whole surface
of the pool Is shivering with n deli
cate, tremulous motion, very complex
In its character. In a water wave the
particle of water moves up and down
at right ancles to the general direo
lion in which the wave is moving. A
Piece of wood floating on the pond
will be rained and lowered, hut not
moved to any extent from its post
tlon relative to the sides of the pond
In oilier words, there Is no actual
transfer or movement of any particle
of water from where the stone dis
turbed the sin face of the pool to the
shore, although It looks that way to
the ordinary observer, so deceptive
is the motion. This kind of n wave,
lit right angles to the line of direction
In which the wave is moving. Is
known as a transverse wave and Is
the kind of wave In which light trav
els from the sun to the earth.
Another kind of wave may be ob
served when a gentle wind passes
over a "held of pialn in fruit. As the
breeze progresses the heads of grain
gracefully nod and sway, first In the
direction in which the wind Is mov
ing nnd then In the opposite direc
tion. This Is done bo regularly and
harmonically that the . disturbance
may readily be seen traveling rhyth
mically across the field. It is very
evident, eu'ii to the most careless
observer, that no head of grain trav
els more than a few Inches back nnd
Now whut has nil this to do with earth
quale waves? Very much. The same kind of
waves as have been described ns rippling the
surface of a pond or scurrying across a Held
of grain arc the waves that move through the
earth when a shock, whatever bo Its origin,
culls them Into being.
Supposo we Imagine a heavy charge of
dynamite exploded somewhere down in the
earth. The earth in the Immediate neighbor
hood of the explosion will first be compressed,
even as the water pai tides next to the stone
thrown Into the pool were pushed nearer to
gether. Then the elasticity of t ho earth ex
erts Itself and It immediately rebounds, Just
The fpred of transmission varies from 200
or 300 feet per" second In loose, soft eauh to
more than 10 times that velocity in solid rock.
The crust of the earth varies much in differ
ent places ns to the character of the strata.
As the waves approach the surface they en
counter areas of solid, highly clastic rock;
then possibly they pass Into regions of soft.
Incoherent sand and clay and weathered
shales. The vibrations are consequently much
changed as to their character and a new set
of motions set up, differing considerably from
the original waves.
A third class of waves differing in nature
forward, but that the Impulse travels successively
from head to head. This is an excellent Illustra
tion of how n wave progresses. The wave itself Is
Immaterial, a pulsation, although It travels by
means of material substances. The amplitude, ns
It is termed, of a wave is the width of the swing
of the swaying heads of grain forward or backward,
or the vertical distance from the highest part of
the water wave to the lowest depth of tho trough.
The form of wave observed In such a field as
Das been described Is known as a longitudinal
or normal wave and Is the kind of wave In
which sound travels.
' lLfw mCTURE
7T I rjf ryl vis
v yyfyhw i'; - , ' JyJ jXx
There is still a fourth class of waves, ninth
more teiritylng and spectacular In their ef
fets. These waves bteni to have no relatlou
to the elasticity of the rocks and occur di
rectly above the earthquake centrum, or epi
focal district. Their kngths an small; they
have very large amplitude of ibtation nnd
are too slow to bo due to elasticity. In length
they vary from :I0 to H!0 feet and in height
from two inches to one foot. These waves
are piobably due to reflection or refraction
from the deeper trausverpe waves when these
latter waves pass from a highly elastic to a
slightly elastic medium, and are the most de
structive known. These aro the wave3 which
are responsible for the mischief in
the great shocks. They tilt build
ings, overthrow walls, upset chim
neys, twist car tracks, swing and
map off immense trees and telegraph
poles, nialte great cracks in the
ground and are the prolific cause of
::cat landslips where the conditions
ire favorable.
Money talks Just as loudly In the
realm of music as anywhere else.
The despised violin which merely is
an Incumbrance when it is thought
to he worth not more than $10 be
comes the chief ornament of the
household when an expert says It is
worth not less'than $l.noo. In Chi
cago there is n business man who
owns a violin, lie Inherited it from
his father, who was a musician. The
business man does not play. One
of his friends is a lover of violin irru
tk That friend often had told the
business mim the violin was a good
ore and that he ought to treasure it.
The business man regarded the ad
rc as that of an enthusiast. One
day th aigiiment became so warm
the friend Insisted that the question
be settled at once by carrying the
instrument to a professor of music
who is admittedly an authority on
"Why, I wouldn't carry that violin
0i A?lt
In both kinds of waves, transverse and
longitudinal, we observe that the motion of
the particles is pendulum-like In ( Its. charac
ter. Let us consider what we may learn from
the observation of an ordinary pendulum In
vibration. Suppnse'we suspend n weight by
means of a string and start It to swaying to
and fro. The distance covered In a complete
swing is termed, as given above, the ampli
tude of vibration; the time required for a
complete swing hack and forth Is called tho
wave period. If we cause the pendulum to
wing to and fro through a greater arc we
observe that the time or period . Is Just tho
lame as before; in other words, the amplitude
or width of swing may be increased or do
creased, but the time or period required for
(ach vibration Is always the same for any
given length. If we shorten the pendulum
we llnd it will vibrate much faster. If we
lengthen It It will vibrate much slower. Fen
JuluniB of different lengths, then, have differ
ent times of vibration.
Now suppose we combine two pendulums
of different lengths Into one. Each of the
component pendulums will strive to do JiiRt
what It was doing before nnd the resulting
motion, ns shown In figure 1, which represents
l double pendulum, will bo quite curious. In
itend of swaying soberly back and forth, as
every well-regulated pendulum Is supposed to
Uo, It takes on n curious, reeling motion. If
we fill the funnel shown In the Illustration
with fine sand the sand will be deposited In
I beautiful curve not unlike the figure 8 In
general appearance, although the form of the
:urve depends upon the ratios existing be
tween the lengths of tho component pendu
lums. A similar effect is produced when two
.lining forks of different rates of vibration
ire caused to reflect their wave forms by
little mirrors nttnehed to the ends of th forks
Into one Image on n screen.
ns tho water par
ticles did. A suc
cession of waves
of alternate com
pression nnd ex
pansion then
passes through
the strata. Theso
correspond exact
ly to the waves that pass over the field of
grain and nro longitudinal or normal waves,
moving backward and forward tn tho direc
tion of tho wave motion, even as the spokes
of a wheel radiate from the hub and the radii
of n circle, originate nt the center.
But this explosion of dynamite would not
only set these normal waves In motion, but
would give rise to another set known as trans
verse waves, corresponding to the motion
shown to exist in water waves. It is very easy
to see how the normal waves originate, but It
requires some little effort to understand how
the other kind Is started. When the dyna
mite explodes It Imparts a peculiar, twisting
motion to the entiro rock face of the cavern
in which tho dynamite was exploded. This
twisting motion is the parent of the trans
verse waves and they start on their way to
gether with the normal waves.
The two kinds of waves, normal and trans
verse, start out on their errands of destruc
tion together and nro generally present In
earthquakes. Sometimes, however, they sepa
rate and travel In different directions, or one
of them loses its energy through some varia
tion In the nature of the 6trata, or from
some unknown cause, When they travel to
gether theso waves correspond In their effect
to that shown when two pendulums are acting
ns one, as in the sand pendulum referred to
before. This explains the fnct that usually
there is a vertlcoso or twisting motion present
in moU earthquakes; but sometimes, as when
tho waves separate, only an up-and-down mo
tion, or a twisting motion alone. Normal
anves travel faBter than the transversa.
from both the
normal nnd
t r a n s v erse
waves has
been observed.
They are
known as sur
face waves, or,
as Milne pre-
tara tn rnU Mioin pnrtli imlsjltions. Their
cause Is obscure and earthquake specialists
are divided as to whether they owe their or
igin to n tilting up and down of the strata of
the earth's crust or whether they are due to
a cnuse different from tilting nnd ns yet un
known. These surface waves are quite dif
ferent from the other waves that have been
described In several rtspects. First, they aro
of extremely long periods, sometimes exceed
ing two minutes In length, whllo an ordinary
wave is very much shorter. Second, they are
long distance waves and nre not the results
of earthquakes three V four thousand miles
away, as earthquakes violent enough to pro
duce these effects nt that distance must be, as
Major Dutton points out, "necessarily of great
power and could not escape notice and world
wide celebrity unless occurring in localities
very far from human observation, or perhaps
in the depths of mid-ocean."
In regard to earthquakes occurring under
the sea little Is known, especially ns to tho
recoru of changes made In the topography of
the sea bottom. In some cases, however. In
formation has been obtained particularly with
reference to some of the earthquakes off the
toast of Greece. A number of cables had
been broken in that vicinity and soundings
taken when they were mended revealed some
startling facts. In one case, according to Salis
bury, where soundings were taken from the
bow and stem of the ship which repaired tho
cable, there was a difference of more than
1,000 feet In the depth of water at the two
ends of the ship. Whoa the cable was laid n
few years before the bottom was practically
through the strict for anything," the business man
said "My friends would think I had gone music
mad in my old age." '
"I'll carry it." his friend said quickly. "I'm not
ashamed to carry a violin anywhere. Come along."
Hicy went. The professor was at home. The
back and belly, the neck and the bridge, the tail
piece and the sounding post all passed beneath his
critical eye. "It looks all right," the professor said.
From ;hc case he drew the bow and ran tho
hair several times across the cake of rosin.
Then, striking A on a nearby piano, he pro
ceeded to tune the instrument which for so
many years had been held in such light es
teem by its owner.
"It is a genuine old Italian Instrument, and
I'll give you 1 1.000 for It," the professor said.
The business man gasped.
'I'll tell you frankly it is worth more than
tint, but that U all 1 can nfford to pay," the
professor continued.
"I can't think of selling It," the business
man replied, with a halt in his speech. "You
see it came to me from my father. It is an
heirloom. I thank you, however, for the test
you have made and the good opinion you have
The two men started away from the home
of the professor, the business man carrying
the violin.
"Let mo take it," his musical friend said.
"You may meet some one you know."
"I'll carry It," the business man retorted.
"I don't care how many friends I meet. And,
besides, you might drop it."
Vain Sacrifice
Apropos of examinations and their terrors,
A. K. Palmer, secretary of the department of
education of New York, told at a recent din
ner an odd story of a young African prince.
"This prince," said Mr. Palmer, "entered
Yale or Harvard I forget which and amused
himself with motor cars and bulldogs till ex
aininntion time drew near.
"Examination time . frightened the young
prince horribly. lie began to study nnd he
cabled home to tho king, his father:
" 'Examinations next week. Most difficult.
Implore aid of gods In my behalf.'
"A lew days later this reply camo back
from the barbarous west coast monarch:
" 'Rites performed. Fourteen picked youths,
nil sonsi of nobles, have been BacrllieJ. Omens
"Yet, would you believe It?" Mr. Palmer
concluded. "The young prince flunked."
Don't dope vourself for every 1:1 tie
pnin. It only liuvu your slomitcii fv.ii.Ii
pain comes 'usually from local iiillo.i
ni.itlon. A littU ruM'inj with Hamlin
Wizard Oil will stop it immediately.
Pon't forget tnat a divorce suit
costs more than a wedding suit.
Mm. Wlnlow'i RiMitlilnir Syrup.
FnrchlMrM ti'i'tUHv, i ufii'iis ibo, rMuwi In.
tt-iiuiiml.uu, ..; imlu. cures L.U cjIIu. u butUo.
The world tprinkled $1,(100,000 worth
of pepper on its food in MuS.
Tell the Dealer you want a I,'.;wi' Single
Hinder cifc-ar fir its rich, utPlIoiv qmi'iiy.
During her courtship no girl Is in
favor of disarmament.
- i-
During Change of Life,
says Airs. Clias. Barclay
Graniteville, Vt. "I was passim
through the Chanpeof Life and suffered
lrom nervousness
symptoms, and I
can truly say that
Vegetable Com
pound lias proved
worth mountains
of pold to me, as it
restored my health
and strength. I
never forget to tell
my friends what
Vegetable Compound has done for mo
during this trying period. Complete
restoration to health means so much
to ine that for tlie sake of other sulTer
ing women I am willing to make my
troutjlo puMic r.o you may puliliJi
this letter." it ns. ('has. ILvpclay,
l.RD.,(iranitevil!e, Vt.
I'o other nedieino for woman's ills
las received snch wide-spread and un
qualified endorsement. JS'o other med
kino Ave know of has such a record
of cures of feninlo ills r.s has Lydia E.
I'inkham's Vegetable Compound,
Tor more than 0 years it has been
curing femalo complaints such as
inflammation, ulceration, local weak
nesses, fibroid tumors, irregularities,
periodic pains, backache, indigestion
and nervous prostration, and it in
unequalled for carrying women safely
through the period of change of life.
It costs but littlo to try Lydia J3.
rinkham's Vegetable Compound, and,
as is "worth moun
tains of cold " to stuTcrinc women.
Nebraska Directory
nr the best : ln-i.-l on luiviug thian.
A-k j'r liu-ivl ili-alrr, or
IYJ. Spiesberger & Son Co.
WSiolesalc iiilinery
tho Best In the Weit OMAHA, NEB.
kodIk finish IK q
nnci!tio!i. All supplitrt. fur tin- Air. utttur strictly
Irrsh. Si-tnl fur '.it.iUiL'iti' unit flnlslilnir iu-Ii-oh.
Box 1197. Omaha, Nob.
Eurosean Plan
ItonniM from l rj ti single. 7!i ci'TiM up ilmibln.
CAFE 1'KICi.S reasonable:
;i " : j Ji. r pricH. IM,n 4r tJtTllO t.iy-
ii.imi: . lictitttl. n nt h i.i.l ii u -m..
jteiiy wht ru for f h p examination. Node
,-t-m rin- i..r n-7 dirt Hi II 111 fttxl itlfcf
H r'.Mn ! 1'11.,4'j ; MondMialtUlf .Omahft.
Rfilit by the nwt Penlrr. Wowlll urncl to pupil. nd
MsicItiT on rovlpt ofnc'p.ln ntnpn. a ivinch, hnnl
ni.k hmr.nlfi'itrnlo. JOHN G. WOODWARD
4CO."TheConUy Mari''Council Bluffa, la.
I -. l- "' 'i
Fistula fJ.i
And Rectal DisEsaes ta
I n. Book I. well worth relict. VC 3
It illt th. phln iruili Mtxiui I'll.-. VS.i
and llctlald.iraw,. It convey. Z'U
men.Ji-tf fit lini,o tn th.,. .!. i... C 3
rj ' '. iiHorvil tho firturi.. nn,l unpW Ll
, ........... . .. ,.,. , n ,
.............. v. wi rvrurvn. It yrl .
....... ....v ...... ... , n,y nivinfiu I. tnr.nfr.t .
Vi .,. . p.ntni rc.
V b ...'.U JU.I HllllkllUll.
Pay When A
B- . ' " " I'M'YP IU )UU P1J UO US II
ny' K h nLi'ntr. yo-i piv n-ihhiif until ihr I
wriii n(tujriru. e(,; MJ n Inrn- a ynU live) tUi
iho cr wnl l iiernjrivnf. SliouM tlio fiouhl,-1
iflorl pmnnutirvynti rtirni, I will (rent ynu (u I
l c fair tnrt !jLTr, It I'm nioat libvrjl ii r
B tin. I I I ii mhu iiu urnru ui I
- wimv I'lrriy iren noon, nuurou
226 Dee Itu'ildlnK, Qnv.tlia. Nebraska.