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About Semi-weekly news-herald. (Plattsmouth, Nebraska) 1895-1909 | View Entire Issue (Sept. 21, 1900)
PRESIDENT M'KrN LEY'S letter
of acceptance is probably the most
important unofficial document is
sued in this country in a quarter of a
century. The President takes the coun
try into his confidence and throws a new
light upon the history of the past two
years. Irrespective of its caustic arraign
ment of the critics of the administration
and its forceful clinching of the fact that
Bryanism means the "immediate" de
struction of the gold standard and sub
stitution therefor of free silver coinage
at the ratio of 16 to 1, the letter is im
portant in the historic 6ense because it
gives the American' people their first
knowledge of the statesmanship and con
ditions connected with recent epoch-making
The President, although by nature a
mild and conciliatory man, can be arous
ed to a point of dangerous combativeness,
and when the mood is on him he becomes
one of the most effective debaters we
have had in this country for many years.
In his letter he wastes no time In what
might be called preliminary sparring, but,
having definitely located the enemy'B
vital spot, which is the free silver heresy,
Tie strikes at it with force and precision.
The financial question, he ays, may not
be the paramount issue, but it is the im
mediate issue. "It will admit of no de
lay and will suffer no postponement."
For has not the Democratic party declar
ed for the "immediate" coinage of silver
at a ratio of 10 to 1? And is there any
doubt that Mr. Bryan, who insisted upon
the insertion of the silver plank in the
platform, against the advice of the best
men in the party, will use every rae.iBs,
if he is elected, to carry his principles
After paying the tribute of hi3 regret
that the Democratic party by its nominee
and its reiteration of the free silver plank
of 1S96 has made it necessary for the
voters to reaffirm their decision of four
years ago in favor of the existing gold
standard. President McKinley boldly
picks up the gage of battle on the issue
of imperialism. What that issue is he
states most happily in a single paragraph
near the end of his letter. After he has
marshaled the facts which place the
whole controversy in the clearest possi
ble historical light before the reader, he
The American question is be
tween duty and desertion the
i American verdict will be for duty
and against desertion, for the Re
public against both anarchy and
As a campaign document the letter is
regarded as phenomenally strong. But
it is more than a campaign document. It
la a contribution to history. The Presi
dent deals candidly with the American
people. He is not afraid to tell them
what be has done or why he did it. He
deals in facts rather than in arguments.
TEXT OF THE LETTER.
President' Views on Free Silver and
the Philippine Question.
Ex entire Mansion, Washington. D. C.
8ept. & To the Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge,
Chairman Notification Committee My Dear
Sir: The nomination of the Republican na
tional convention of Jane 19, 1900, for the
office of President of the United States,
which, as the offialal representative of the
convention, yon have conveyed to me, Is
accepted. I have carefully examined the
platform adopted and give It my hearty
Vpoa the great Issue of the last national
election it Is clear. It upholds the gold
standard and Indorses the legislation of the
present Congress by which that standard
has been effectively strengthened. The sta
bility of our national currency Is, therefore,
secure so long aa those who adhere to this
platform are kept in control of the govern
ment. Same Isinet Involved.
In the first battle, that of 1S06, the friends
of the gold standard and of sound currency
were triumphant and the country is enjoy
ing the fruits of that victory. Onr antag
onists, however, are. not satlsfled. They com
pel us to a second battle upon the same lines
on which the first was fought and won.
While regretting the reopening of this
question, which can only disturb the present
satisfactory financial condition of the gov
ernment and visit uncertainty upon our
great business enterprises, we accept the
Issue and again invite the . sound money
forces to Join In winning another and we
hope a permanent triumph for an honest
financial system which will continue Invio
lable the public faith.
All Loyal to Silver.
As in 1898, the three silver parties are
united under the same leader, who, imme
diately after the election of that year. In an
address to the blmetalllsts, said:
"The friends of bimetallism have not been
vanquished; they have simply been over
come. They believe that the gold standard
la a conspiracy of the money changers
against the welfare of the human race and
they will continue the warfare against It."
The policy thus proclaimed has been ac
cepted and confirmed by these parties. The
liver Democratic platform of 1900 continues
the warfare against the so-railed gold con
spiracy when It expressly says:
"We reiterate the demand of that (the
Chicago) platform of 1SD6 for an American
financial system made by the American peo
ple for themselves, which shall restore and
- maintain a bimetallic price level; and aa
part of such system the immediate restora
tion of the free and unlimited coinage of
silver and gold at the present ratio of 10 to
1, without waiting for the aid or consent of
any other nation."
The Paramount Isaac.
So the issue Is presented. It will be noted
that the demand is for the immediate restor
ation of the free coinage of silver at 16 to
1. If another Issue Is paramount, this is
Immediate. It will admit of no delay and
will suffer no postponement.
Turning to the other associated parties,
we find in the Topnlist national platform
adopted at Sioux Falls. S. D., May 10, 1900.
the following declaration:
"We pledge anew the People's party nev
er to cease the agitation until this financial
conspiracy is blotted from the statute book,
the Lincoln greenback restored, the bonds
all paid and all corporation money forever
retired. We reafllm the demand for the re
opening of the mints of the United States
for the free and unlimited coinage of silver
and gold at the present legal ratio cf 16 to
1, the Immediate Increase In the volume of
silver coins and certificates thus created to
be substituted, dollar for dollar, for the
bank notes issued by private corporations
under special privilege, granted by law of
March 14. 1900, and prior national banking
Declare Their Hostility.
The platform cf the sliver party adopted
at Kansas City, Jnly 6, 1900,- makes the fol
"We declare it to be our intention to lend
our efforts to the repeal of this currency
law, which not only repudiates tha ancient
and time-honored principles of .he Ameri
can people before the Constitution waa
adopted, but Is violative of the principles of
the Constitution itself; and we shall not
cease our efforts until there has been estab
lished In Its place a monetary system based
upon the free and unlimited coinage of silver
and gold Into money at the present legal
ratio of 1C to 1 by the Independent action of
the United States, under which system all
paper money shall be issued by the govern
ment, and all such money coined or Issued
shall be a full legal tender In payment of
all debts, public and private, without exception."
Combine Atrainat Gold.
In all three platforms these parties an
nounce that their efforts shall be unceasing
until the gold act shall be blotted from the
statute books and the free and unlimited
coluujie of sliver at 16 to 1, shall take its
The relative importance of the issues I do
not stop to discus?. All of them are Im
portant. Whichever party Is successful will
be bound In conscience to carry into admin
istration and legislation its several declara
tions and doctrines. One declaration will be
as obligatory as another, but all are not Im
mediate. It Is not possible that these parties would
treat the doctrine of 16 to 1, the immediate
realization of which is demanded by" their
several platforms, as void and Inoperative
lu the event that they should be clothed
with power. Otherwise their profession of
faith is Insincere. It is therefore the Im
perative business of those opposed to this
financial hereFy to prevent the triumph of
the parties whose union Is only assured by
adherence to the silver issue.
Facins Grave Peril.
Will the American people, through Indif
ference or fancied security, hazard the over
throw of the wise financial legislation of the
last year and revive the danger of the silver
standard, with all of the Inevitable evils of
shattered confidence and general disaster
which justly alarmed and aroused them in
The Chicago platform of 1S96 is reaffirmed
In Its entirety by the Kansas City conven
tion. Nothing has been-omitted or recalled;
so that all the perils, then threatened are
presented anew with the added force of a
deliberate reaffirmation. Four years ago
the people refused to place the seal of their
approval upon these dangerous and revolu-.
tlonary policies, and this year they will not
fall to record again their earnest dissent.
Faithful to Pledges.
The Republican party remains faithful to
its principle of a tariff which supplies suf
ficient revenues for the government and ade
quate protection to our enterprises and pro
ducers, and of reciprocity, which opens for
eign markets to the fruits of American labor
and furnishes new channels through which
to market the surplus of American farms.
The time-honored principles of protection
and reciprocity were the first pledges of Re
publican victory to be written into public
The present Congress has given to Alaska
a territorial government for which it had
waited more than a quarter of a century;
has established a representative government
In Hawaii; has enacted bills for the most
liberal treatment of the pensioners and their
widows; has revived the free homestead
In Us great financial law It provided for
the establishment of banks of issue with a
capital of $23,000 for the benefit of villages
and rural communities, bringing the oppor
tunity for profitable business in banking
within the reach of moderate capital. Many
are already availing themselves of this priv
ilege. Some Convincing Fitrnrea.
During the past year more than $10,000,000
of United States bonds have been paid from!
the surplus revenues of the treasury, and in
addition 25,000.000 of 2 per cents matured,
called by the government, are in process of
payment. Pacific Railroad bonds Issued by
the government In aid of the roads In the
sum of nearly $44,000,000 have been paid
since Dec. 31, 1897. The treasury balance is
in satisfactory condition, showing on Sept.
1 $135,419,000, In addition to the $150,000,000
gold reserve in the treasury. The govern
ment relations with the Pacific railroads
have been substantially closed, $124,421,000"
being received from these roads, the greater
part In cash and the remainder with ample
securities for payments deferred.
Instead of diminishing, as was .predicted
four years ago, the volume of our currency
Is greater per capita than It has ever been.
It was $21.10 in 1S96. It had Increased to
$26.30 on July 1, 1900. and $26.85 on Sept. 1.
1900. Qur total money on July 1, 1896, was
$1,50,434,966; on July 1. 1900. it waa $2.-
0C2.425.490, and $2,096,083,042 on Sept. 1,
Prosperity in General.
Our Industrial aud agricultural conditions
are more promising than they have been for
many years; probably more so than they
have ever beeu. Prosperity abounds every
where throughout the republic. I rejoice
that the Southern as well as the Northern
State are enjoying a full share of these Im
proved national conditions and that all are
contributing so largely to our remarkable
The money lender receives lower rewards
for his capital than If It were invested In
active business. The rates of Interest are
lower than they have ever been in this coun
try, while those things which are produced
on the farm and In the workshop, and the
labcr producing them, have advanced In
Our foreign trade shows a satisfactory and
Increasing growth. The amount of our ex
ports for the year 1900 over those of the ex
ceptionally prosperous year of 1S99 was
about hclf a million dollars for every day
of the year, and these sums have gone Into
the homes and enterprises of the people.
Th-re has been an Increase of over $o0,000,
000 In the exports of agricultural products,
$92,092,220 In manufactures and in the prod
ucts of the mines of over $10,000,000.
His Gains in Trade.
Our trade balances cannot fall to give sat
isfaction to the people of the country. In
1898 we sold abroad $C13,432,C76 of products
more than we bought abroad. In 1899 ."i29,
874.S13 and in 1900 $544,471,701, making dur
ing the three years a total balance In our
favor of $1,689,779,190 nearly five times the
balance of trade In our favor for the whole
period of 108 years from 1790 to June 30,
Four hundred and thirty-six million dol
lars of gold have beeu added to the gold
stock of the United States since July 1. 1896.
The law of March 14, 1900, authorised the
refunding Into 2 per cent bands of that part
of the public debt represented by the 8 per
cents due In 1908, the 4 per cents due in 1901
and the 5 per cents due in 1904, aggregating
$340,000,000. More than one-third of the
sum of these bonds waa refunded in the first
three months after the passage of the act,
and oa Sept. 1 the cum had been Increased
more than $33,000,000, making In all $330.
E7S.050, resulting in a net saving of over $8,
379,520. Government Saving Money.
The ordinary receipts of the .government
for the fiscal year 1900 were $79,527,060 In
excess of Its expenditures.
While our receipts both from customs and
Internal revenue have been greatly Increas
ed, our expenditures have been decreaslug.
Civil and miscellaneous expenses for the fis
cal year ending June SO, 1900, were nearly
$14,000,000 lees than in 1699. while on the
war account there is a decrease of more
than $95,000,000. There was required $3,
000,000 less to support the navy this year
than last, and the expenditures on account
oT Indians were nearly two and three-quarters
million dollars less than In 1899.
The only two Items of increase In the pub
lic expense of 1900 over 1899 are for pen
sions and interest on the public debt. For
1899 we expended for pensions $139,394,929,
and for the fleeal year 1900 our payments on
this account amounted to $140,877,316. The
net increase of Interest on the public debt
of 1900 over 1899 required by the war loan
Bonds Speedily Taken.
While Congress authorised the govern
ment to make a war loan of $400,000,000 at
the. beginning of the war with Spain, only
$200,000,000 of bonds was Issued, bearing 3
per cent Interest, which were promptly and
patriotically taken by our cltisens.
Unless something unforeseen occurs to r
duce our revenues or increase our expendi
tures, the Congress at its next session should
reduce taxation very materially.
Fifty years ago we were selling govern
ment bonds bearing as high as 5 per cent in
terest. Now we are redeeming them with a
bond at par bearing 2 per cent interest. We
are selling our surplus products and lending
our surplus money to Europe.
Europe I Our Debtor.
One reaut of oar Belling to other nations
so much more than we have bought from
them during the past three years Is a radical
Improvement of our financial relations. The
great amounts of capital which have been
borrowed of Europe for our rapid, material
development have remained a constant drain
upon our resources fos Interest and divi
dends and made our money markets liable
to constant disturbances by calls for pay
ment or heavy sales of our securities when
ever money stringency or panic occurred
abroad. We have now been paying these
debts and bringing home many of our se
curities and establiahlng countervailing
credits abroad by our loans and placing our
selves upon a sure foundation of financial
In the unfortunate roiitest between Great
Britain and the Boer stafes of South Africa
the United States has maintained an atti
tude ef neutrality in accordance with Ita
well-known traditional policy. It did not
hesitate, however, when requested by the
governments of the South African republics,
to exercise Its good offices for a cessation of
Did What We Could.
It is to be observed that while the South
African republics made like request of other
powers, the United States is the only one
which compiled. The British government
declined to accept the intervention of any
Ninety-one per cent of our exports and im
ports are tow carried by foreign ships. For
ocean transportation we pay annually to for
eign ahlp owners over $165,000,000. We
ought to own the ships for our carrying
trade with the world, and we ought to build
them In American shipyards and man them
with American sailors. Our own citizens
should receive the transportation charges
now paid to foreigners.
I have called the attention of Congress to
this subject In my several annual messages.
In that of Dec. 6, 1897. I said:
"Most desirable from every standpoint of
national Interest and patriotism Is the effort
to extend our foreign commerce. To this
end our merchant marine should be Improved
and enlarged. We should do our full share
of the carrying trade of Ihe world. We do
not do It now. We should be the laggard no
In my message of Dec. 5, 1S99, I said:
"Our national development wl'.l be one-sided
and unsatisfactory so long as the remark
able growth of our inland Industries remains
unaccompanied by progress on the seas.
There Is no lack of constitutional authority
for legislation which shall give to the coun
try maritime strength commensurate with
Its Industrial achievements aud with its
rank among the nations of the earth.
"The past year has recorded exceptional
activity In our shipyards, and the promises
of continual prosperity In shipbuilding are
abundant. Advanced legislation for the pro
tection of our seamen has been enarlod. Ouf
coast trade, under regulations wisely framed
at the beginning of the government and
since, shows Its results for the past fiscal
year unequaled In our records or those of
any other power.
Need of the Canal.
"We shall foil to realize our opportuni
ties, however. If we complacently regard
only matters at home and blind ourselves to
the necessity of securing our share In the
valuable carrying trade of the world.
"I now reiterate these views.
"A subject of immediate Importance to
our country Is the completion of a great
waterway of commerce between the Atlantic
and Pacific. The construction of a mari
time canal Is now more than ever Indispen
sable to that Intimate and ready communi
cation between our eastern and western sea
ports, demanded by the annexation of the
Hawaiian Islands and the expansion of our
Influence and trade lu the Pacific.
"Our national policy more Imperatively
than ever calls for Its completion and con
trol by this government, and It is believed
that the next session of Congress, after re
ceiving the full report of the commission ap
pointed under the act approved March 3,
1899, will make provisions for the sure ac
complishment of this great work.
Would Restrict Trusts.
Combinations of capital which control the
market In commodities necessary to the gen
eral use of the people by suppressing nat
ural and ordinary competition, thus en
hancing prices to the general consumer, are
obnoxious to the common law and the public
welfare. Tbey are dangerous conspiracies
against the public good, and should be made
the subject of prohibitory or penal legisla
tion. Publicity will be a helpful Influence to
check this evil. Uniformity of legislation in
the different States should be secured. Dis
crimination between what is Injurious and
what Is useful and necessary in business
operations Is essential to the wise and effect
ive treatment of this subject.
Honest co-operation of capital Is necessary
to meet new business conditions and extend
our rapidly Increasing foreign trade, but
conspiracies and combinations Intended to
restrict business, create monopolies and con
trol prices should be effectively restrained.
Best Friends of Labor.
The best service which can be rendered to
labor Is to afford it an opportunity for
steady and remunerative employment and
give it every encouragement for advance
ment. The policy that subserves this end Is
the true American policy. The past three
years have been more satisfactory to Ameri
can worklngnien than many preceding years.
Any change of the present Industrial or
financial policy of the government would be
disastrous to their highest Interests.
With prosperity at home and an increas
ing foreign market for American products
employment should continue to wait upon
labor, and with the present gold standard
the worklngman la secured against payment
for his labor in a depreciated currency. For
labor a short day is better than a short dol
lar. One will lighten the burdens, the other
lessens the rewards of toll. The one will
promote contentment and independence, the
other penury and want.
Speak for Good "Wanes.
The wages cf labor should be adequate to
keep the home In comfort, educate the chil
dren, and, with thrift and economy, lay
something bv for the davs of Infirmity and
Practical civil service reform ha always
had the support and encouragement of the
Republican party. The future of the merit
system Is safe In its hands.
During the present administration ss oc
casions have arisen for iiioditic.ltton or
amendment In the cxlstlnc civil service law
and rules, they have been made. Important
amendments were promulgated by executive
order under date of May 29. lrW. having for
their principal purpose the exception from
competitive examination of certain places in
volvlng fiduciary responsibilities or duties
of a strictly confidential, scientific or execu
tive character, which It was thought might
better be filled by noncompetitive examlna
tlon or by other tests of fltuess in the dis
cretion of the appointing oKlcor.
Value of Merit System.
It Is gratlfjlng that the experience of more
than a year has vindicated these changes In
the marked improvement of the public ser
vice. The merit system, as far as practicable.
Is made the basis for appointments to of
fice In our new territory.
The American people are profoundly grate
ful to the soldiers, sailors and marines who
have In every time of conflict fought their
country's battles and defended its honor.
The survivors and the widows and orphan
of those who have fallen are Justly entitled
to receive the generous and considerate care
of the nation.
Few are now left of those who fought In
the Mexican war, and while many of the
veterans of the Civil War are still spared to
us their numbers are rapidly diminishing
and age and Infirmity are Increasing their de
pendence. These, with the soldiers of the
Spanish war, will not be neglected by their
grateful country ment. The pension laws
have beeu liberal. They should be Justly
administered, and will be. Preference
should be given to the ao'.dlers, sailers mid
marines, their widows and orphans, with
respect to employment in the public ser
vice. Kept Faith with Cuba.
We have been In possession of Cuba since
the first of January. 1M19. We have re
stored order and established domestic tran
quillity. We h.ive fed the starving, clothed
the naked, and ministered to the sick. We
have Improved the sanitary condition of the
island. We have stimulated Industry, in
troduced public education, and taken a full
and comprehensive enumeration cf the In
habitants. The qualification of electors has been set
tled and under It officers have been chosen
for all the municipalities of Cuba. These
local governments ure now in operation, ad
ministered by the people. Onr military r
tabllshiuent has been reduced from 43,'f 0
to less than 6,000.
An election has been ordered to be held on
the loth of September under a fair election
law already tried In the municipal elections,
to choose members of a constitutional con
vention, and the convention, by tiie same
order. Is to assemble on the first Monday of
November to frame a constitution upon
which an Independent government for the
Island will rest. All this Is a long step in
the fulfillment cf our sacred guarantees to
the people of Cuba.
Plani for Porto Kico.
We hold Porto Kico by the same title as
the Philippines. The treaty of peace which
ceded us the one conveyed to us the other.
Congress has given to this island a govern
ment In which the inhabitants participate.
elect their own legislature, enact their own
local laws, provide their own system of tax
ation, ant In these respects have the same
power and privileges enjoyed by other terri
tories belonging to the United States and a
much larger measure of Kelf-govemnjeut
than was given to the inhabitants of IauIsI
ana under Jefferson. A district court of the
United States for Porto Rico has been estab
lished and local courts have beeu Inaugur
ated, all of which are In operation.
The generous treatment of the Porto
RIcans accords with the most liberal thought
of our own country and encourages the best
aspirations of the people cf the Island.
While they do not have Instant free com
mercial Intercourse with the United States,
Congress complied with my recouimendatlou
by removing, on the 1st day of May last,
85 per cent of the duties aud providing for
the removal of the remaining 15 per cent
on the 1st of March. 1902. or earlier If the
legislntjre of Porto Rico shall provide local
revenues for the expenses of conducting the
Island la Profited.
During tlds Intermediate period Porto
Rlcan products coming Into the United
States pay a tariff of 15 per cent of the rates
under the DlBgley act and our good going
to Porto Rico pay a like rate. The duties
thus paid and collected both In Porto Rico
and the United States are paid t the gov
ernment of Porto Rico and no part thereof
is taken by the national government.
All of the duties from Nov. 1. lttts. to June
30. 1900. aggregating the sum of 2.2M'.-
r,"3 21. rinid at the custom houses in the
United States upon Porto Rlcan products,
under the laws existing prior to the above
mentioned act of Congress, have gone Into
the treasury of Porto Rico to relieve the
destitute and for schools and other public
purposes. In addition to this, we have ex
pended for relief, education and Improve
ment of roads the sum of $1,513,084.95.
Military Force Cat Down.
The United States military force In the
islands has been reduced from 11 ,000 to
1,500, and native Porto It leans constitute for
the most part the local constabulary.
Under the new luw and the Inauguration
of clvH government there has beeu a grati
fying revival of business. The manufactures
of Porto Rico are developing: her Imports
are increasing; her tariff Is yielding In
creased returns; her fields are lelng culti
vated; free schools are being established.
Notwithstanding the many embarrassments
Incident to a change of national conditions,
she Is rapidly showing the good effects of
her new relations to this nation.
For the sake of full and Intelligent under
standing of the Philippine question cud to
give to the people authentic Information of
the acts and alms of the administration. I
present at some length the eveuts of Impor
tance leading up to the present situation.
The purposes of the executive are best re
vealed and can best be judged by what he
has done and Is doing.
Every Move for Peace.
It will be seen that the power of the gov
ernment has been used for the liberty, the
peace and the prosperity of the Philippine
peoples, and that force has been employed
only against force which stood in the way
of the realization of these ends.
On the 2"th day of April. 1W, C'ngrrssj
rtccljrt-d that a state f war existed let ween
Spala and the L'nited States. On Hay 1.
1MN, Admiral Dewey destroyed the Spanls.l
fleet In Mai.ilj Itjy. on May 19. W. M ij.
Ilru. Merrtit. U. S. A., was placed lu r..m
in.i n.l of the military expedition to Manila
and directed among other things to Immedi
ately piblisli a priM'Iamatlnn de.-lari: g that
we come not to male war upon the people
of the Philippine nor upon nny part or fac
tion among them, but to protect them In
their honus. In their employments, and la
their persona! and religious rights. All per
sons who. either by active aid or hr bonest
'ibinl-l'.u. cooperate with the United
States in Its effort to give e!T,Tt to thl
beneficent jurjx.se will receive the reward
of Its support and protection."
Some Fortune of War.
On July 3. lSOs, the Spanish fleet lu at
tempting to escape from SanMago harbor
vai destroyed by the American fleet, and on
July 17. ls;i. the Sjaiiish carrfson Id the
city of Santiago surrendered to the com
mander of tLe American force.
rYIlowlcg these brilliant victories, no tb
12th day of August. l:r upon the InltU'lTe
of Spuln, hostilities were i.iended. and a
protocol was signed with a view to arrang
ing terms of jeace Wtwrea the two )overn-iitf-nt.
!n juruance thereof I appointed aa
commissioners the following distinguished
clliiees In rondiiet the negotiations on th
jart of tlr Ur.lted States: lion. Wl! lam U.
I'ny of Ohio. Ilcu. William I. Fry of
MlLticKota. II. -n. Ceurge Orsy f f'tlaware
and Hon. W l.itelaw K.-ld of New Vork.
Forced Into Conflict.
In addressing the j.e.ji e commission ief.ire
Its departure for purls, i mi .
It Is my wish fLat thrur.tc'.i' i;t Ire r.ctf.-
tl.it lop iutru.-tcd to Ihe rouuii!-. -: n tte j.ur-
pose and sjirlt wtrh which the !'ni;ed S'.i'es
accepted the unw Iconic :iccei'y i f war
should be kc; t constantly !u vn a. We
took up arms only In oUed.er.ce in trie die.
tates of humanity and the fulfillment ,.f twt
public and mora.' obligation. We h-d u-
design of actraulixeir.ent an 1 n a: Mt'.ut
'Through the long course of rej.est.- I rep
resentation which preceded and aimed
avert the struggle and In the final crVtn
iner.t of force this country was !u'.,ei.i-! ";
ly by the jurjoe of reictlcx g-.evt-n
Tongs and returning long exit)in condi
tions which disturbed it trao lull'lty. whuh
shocked the moral eiie of in.ukiuj act
which could no longer be end .r- I.
Hiilh Sense of lntjr.
"It Is my earnest wi'.i thr.t the I'n.'el
State in milking ;e;ne ho:j'd fol'ow tl.e
same high rule of remind wi.i -h ii le I tt
in facing war. It should lie as ri.p j.oiis
nnd tii.-iKiia u iutous in the .neiudl n icitle.
in. lit as it was just and Inwi.ane In I oi!
Lna! n-;i ,n. i,.r a!;n jn tbe ft lj i-t-imr.t
of jo-ace should lie iHreded l.i lasting
results ai d t. the a hieve.-iiet.t of tt.e co.n
nion good tinder the ilt-iuaiuis of i i.lxa: i-u
rather than to ambitious d Ig'is.
"Without any original thoiifc'.it of txinpiete
or eveu partlli acquisition, the preset,. -e lul
success of our arms at Manila impose iijmu
us obligations which we cauuot uisrrrard.
The march of events rules and overrule
hi; ma u action. Avowing unreserved y the
purj'ose which has animated alt our If jrta.
aud still solicitous to adhere to it, we au
not be unmindful that without any ie!re
or design on our jisrt the war has brought,
us new duties anil responsibilities wLiCil we
must meet and discharge as becomes a grejtt
nation on wnoe growth and career, from
the beginning, the Ruler of Natlocs ha
plainly written the high co:u:uand aud
pledge of civilization."
Shirked No Kesponsibll I ty.
u Oct. 2 1VIO. while the peace om:ni.
slou waa continuing Ita negotiations lu Paris,
tbe following additional luatructiuu wa
"It is Imperative upon ua that as victors)
we should be governed only by motive
which will exalt our nation. Territorial 'i
panslon should be our least concern; that,
we shall not shirk the moral obllg-atiou of
our victory Is of tbe greatest.
"It Is undisputed that Spaiu's authority I
permanently destroyed in every part of tb
Philippines. To leave any part In her feeble
control now would Increase our diCicultlea
and be ojjosed to tbe interest ' ( human
ity. .or can we permit Sjialn to
transfer any of the isianda to another
power. Nor can we Invite aDvther jKer
or powers to Jolu the United states la sov
ereignty ever them. We must either Luid
them or turn them back to paiu.
Only One Honorable t'onrw.
"Consequently, grave aa are the responsi
bilities and unforeseen as are the illflicrj!
tles which are before us. the President cm
see but one plain jath of duty, the accept
ance of the archlje!ag'. Ijreater dlilicuitle
and more serious com jillcation uliuliiUi ra
tlve aad International would follow any
"The President has given to the views of
the commissioners tbe fullest consideration,
and lu rem-hlng the conclusion above an
nounced. In the light of information com
municated to tbe commlsslou and ta the
President flnce your departure, he has bee a
Influenced by tbe single consideration of
duty and humanity. The President 1 not
uumlndful of the distressed financial condi
tion of Spain, and whatever consideratiou
the United States may show must come
from Us sense of generosity and benevol
ence rather than from any real or techaltal
Could Not Abandon Them.
Again, on Nov. 13, I Instructed tbe coat
mission: 'From the standpoint of Indemnity, both
the archijielagoes il'orto Rico and tbe Phll-
lpjiincsj are insufficient to pay our war ex
penses, but aside from this, do we not owe
an obligation to the jieople of tbe Philip
pines which will not permit ua to return
them to the sovereignty of Sjiaiu? Co-jlJ we
Justify ourselves la such a course, or cou.-l
we permit their barter to eori.e other j oaer?
Willingly or not, we have the re-p.r;.l-
bllity of duty whb-ti we cannot esape.
The President eatnet believe any
division of the archipelago can bring us aay-
th.'-g but embarrassment In the future. The
trade and commercial side, as well as the
Indemnity for the cost of the war, are ques
tions we might yield. They might be waived
or compromised, but the questions of duty
and humanity appeat to the President so
strongly that he can tind no appropriate an
swer but the one he hat here marked out."
Terms of tbe Treaty.
The treaty of peace was conclude. on Dec.
10. lMJ. By its term the archipelago,
known as the Philippine islands, wa ceded
by Spain to the United States. It was sls
provided that "the civil rights and political
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