Semi-weekly news-herald. (Plattsmouth, Nebraska) 1895-1909, September 21, 1900, SUPPLEMENT, Image 3

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    SUES THIS AltGO COMPANY! wosdebkui. cure of diarrhoea.
.. . .. ......
rumiTicui nmiiunrn
Id . A MVCT0IflnQ..IUWl
status of the native Inhabitants of tbe terri
tories hereby ceded to the United States
shall be determined by tbe Congress."
Eleven days thereafter, on Dec. 21, the fol
lowing direction was given to the command
er of our forces in the Philippines:
"The military commander of the United
Ftates Is enjoined to make known to the In
habitants of the Philippine Islands that. In
succeeding to the sovereignty of Spain, in
severing the former political relations of the
inhabitants and In establishing a new polit
ical power, the authority cf the United
Ftates Is to be exerted for the securing of
the persons and property of the people of
the Islands and for the confirmation of all
their private rights and relations. It will
be tbe duty of the commander of the forces
cf occupation to announce and proclaim In
the most public manner that we come not
as Invaders or conquerors, but as friends, to
protect the natives In their homes, in their
employments and In their personal and re
ligious rights."
Scat a Commission.
In order to facilitate the most humane,
pacific and effective extension of authority
throughout these islands, and to secure, with
the least possible delay, the benefits of a
wise and generous protection of life and
property to tbe inhabitants. 1 appointed in
January. 1X09, a commission consisting of
Jacob Gould Sehurtnan of New York. Ad
miral George lewey. U. B. N.; Charles
Denby cf Indiana. Professor Dean C. Wor
cester of Michigan, and Major Oeueral El
weil S. Otis, U. S. A. Their Instructions
contained the following:
"In tbe performance of this duty the com
missioners are enjoined to meet at the ,
earliest possible day In the city of Manila,
nnd to announce by public proclamation
their presence and the mission intrusted to
tbem. carefully setting forth that, while the
military government already proclaimed Is
to be maintained and continued so long as
necessity may require, efforts will be made
to alleviate the burden of taxation, to estab
lish Industrial and commercial prosperity,
and to provide for the safety of persons and
of property by such means as may be found
conducive to these ends.
Oiven Careful Instructions.
"Tbe commissioners will endeavor, with
out interference with the military authori
ties of the United States now in control of
the Philippines, to ascertain what ameliora
tion in the condition of the inhabitants and
what Improvements In public order may bo
practicable, and for this purpose they will
cfudy attentively the existing social and po
litical state of the various populations, par
ticularly as regards the forms of local gov
ernment, the administration of justice, the
collection of customs and other taxes, the
means of transportation, and the need of
public improvements. They will report
the results of their observations aud
reflections, and wiil recommend such execu
tive action as may from time to time seem
to them wise and useful.
The commissioner are hereby authorized
to confer authoritatively with any persons
resident in tbe Islands from whom they may
believe themselves able to derive informa
tion or suggestions valuable for the pur
poses cf their commission, or whom they
may choose to employ as agents, as may be
necessary for this purpose.
Avoided Harsh Measures.
It Is my desire that In all their relations
with the Inhabitants of the Islands the com
missioners exercise due respect for all the
Ideals, customs and institutions of the tribes
which compose the population, emphasizing
upon all occasions the Just and beneficent In
tentions of the government of the United
it Is also my wish and expectation that
the commissioners may be received In a
manner due to tbe honored nnd authorized
representatives of the American Republic,
duly commissioned on account of their
knowledge, skill and Integrity as bearers of
the good will, the protection and the richest
blessings of a liberating rather than a con
quering nation."
On the Cth of February. 1S00, the treaty
was ratified by the Senate of the United
States, and the Congress Immediately ap
propriated $20,000,000 to carry out its pro
visions. The ratifications were exchanged
by the United States and Spain on the 11th
of April. 1S0U.
As early as April, 1S99, the Philippine
commission, of which Dr. Schurroan was
president, endeavored to bring about peace
In the Islands by repeated conferences with
leading Tagalogs representing the so-called
Insurgent government, to the end that some
general plan of government might be offered
them vrliich they would accept.
Pleased tbe Natives.
So great was the satisfaction of the Insur
gent commissioners with the form of gov
ernment proposed by the American com
missioners that the latter submitted the
proposed scheme to me for approval, and my
action thereon Is shown by tbe cable mes
sage following:
-May !5, 18U0. Scburman, Manila: Yours
4th received. You are authorized to propose
that, under tbe military power of the Presi
dent, pending action of Congress, govern
ment of the Philippine Islands shall consist
of governor general appointed by the
President, cabinet appointed by the govern
or general, a general advisory conncll elect
ed by the people, the qualifications of elect
ors to be carefully considered and deter
mined, and tbe governor general to have ab
solute veto. Judiciary strong and Inde
pendent, principal judges appointed by the
President. The cabinet and judges to be
chosen from natives or Americans, or both,
bating regard to fitness.
"The President earnestly desires the cessa
tion of bloodshed and that tbe people of the
Philippine Islands at an early date shall
have the largest measure of local self-government
consistent with peace and good
Si ens of Treachery.
In tbe latter part of May another group
of representatives came from tbe Insurgent
leader. Tbe whole matter was fully dis
cussed with them and promise of acceptance
seemed near at hand. They assured our
commissioners they would retnrn after con
sulting with their leader, but they neTer did.
As a result of the views expressed by tbe
first Tagalog representative favorable to the
plan of the commission, it appears that he
was, by military order of the Insurgent
leader, stripped of his shoulder straps, dis
missed from the army and senteuced to
twelve years' imprisonment.
The views of the commission are best set
forth In their own words:
"Deplorable as war is. the one in which
we ore now engaged was unavoidable by us.
We were attacked by a bold, adventurous
and enthusiastic army. No alternative was
left to us except Ignominious retreat.
Had to Remain.
"It Is not to be conceived of that any
American would have sanctioned tbe sur
render of Manila to tbe insurgents. Our ob
ligations to other nations and to tbe friendly
riliplnos and to ourselves and our flag- de
manded that force should be met with force.
Whatever tbe future of the Philippines may
be. there Is no course open to us now except
the prosecution of tbe war until tbe insur
gents are reduced to submission. .
"The commission Is of the opinion that
there has been no time since the destruction
of the Spanish squadron by Admiral Dewey
when It was possible to withdraw our forces
from the Islands either with honor to our
selves or with safety to the inhabitants."
After the most thorough study of the peo
ples of tbe archipelago tbe commission re
ported, among other things:
"Their lack of education and political ex
perience, combined with their racial and
linguistic diversities, disqualify tbem. In
spite of their mental gifts and domestic vir
tue, to undertake the task of governing the
archipelago at the present time. The most
that can be expected of them Is to co-operate
with the Americans In the administra
tion of general affairs, from Manila as a
center, and to undertake, subject to Amer
ican control or guidance (as may be found
necessary) the administration of provincial
and municipal affairs.
Would Invite Anarchy.
"Should our power by any fatality be
withdrawn, the commission believes that the
government of the Philippines would speed
ily lapse into anarchy, which would excuse.
If It did not necessitate, the Intervention of
other powers, and the eventual division of
the Islands among tbem. Only through
American occupation, therefore, is the Idea
of a free, self-governing and united Philip
pine commonwealth at all conceivable.
"Thus the welfare of the Filipinos coin
cides with the dictates of national honor in
forbidding our abandonment of the archi
pelago. We cannot from any point of view
escape the responsibilities of government
which our sovereignty entails, and the com
mission Is strongly persuaded that the per
formance of our national duty will prove
the greatest blessing to the people of the
Philippine Islands."
Satisfied that nothing further onld be ac
complished in pursuance of their mission
until the rebellion was suppressed, and de
siring to place before the Congress the re
sult of their observations, I requested the
commission to return to the United States.
Their most Intelligent and comprehensive
r.-port. was submitted to Congress.
Otitic of the Commission.
In March, IMio, believing that the Insur
rection was practically ended aud earnestly
desiring to promote the establishment of a
stable government in the arcb'pelago, I ap
pointed the following civil commission:
William H. Taft of Ohio. Professor Dean C.
Worcester of Michigan. Luke I. Wright of
Tennessee. Henry C. Ide of Vermont, and
Bernard Moses of California. My Instruc
tions to them contaiued the following:
"You (the Secretary of War) will instruct
the commission to devote their at
tention iu the first Instance to the establish
ment of municipal governments. In which
the natives of the Islands, both In tbe cities
and in the rural communities, shall be af
forded the opportunity to manage their own
local affairs to the fullest extent of which
they are capable and subject to tbe least de
gree of supervision and control which a care
ful study of their capacities and observation
of the workings of native control show to be
consistent with the maintenance of law, or
der and loyalty.
Awaits the Report.
"Whenever the commission is of the opin
ion that tbe condition of affairs In tbe isl
ands is such that tbe central administration
may safely be transferred from military to
civil control they will report that conclu
sion to you (the Secretary of War), with
their personal recommendations as to the
form of central government to be estab
lished for the purpose of taking over the
"Beginning with the 1st day of Septem
ber, luuu, the authority to exerctse, subject
to my approval through the Secretary of
War, that part of the power of government
In tbe Philippine Islands which Is of a leg
islative nature Is to be trsnsferred from the
military governor of the islands to this com
mission, to be thereafter exercised by them
In tbe place and stead of tbe military gov
ernor, under such rules and regulations as
you tthe Secretary of War) shall prescribe,
until tbe establishment of tbe civil central
government for the Islands contemplated Id
the last foregoing paragraph or until Con
gress shall otherwise provide.
Legislative Anthority.
"Exerclre of this legislative authority will
Include the making or rules and orders hav
ing the effect of law for the raising of reve
nue by taxes, customs duties and imposts;
tbe appropriation and expenditure of tbe
public funds of tbe Islands; the establish
ment of an educational system -throughout
the Islands; tbe establishment of a system
to secure an efficient civil service: the or
ganization and establishment of courts; tbe
organization aud establishment of municipal
and departuiental governments, and all
other matters of a civil nature of which the
military governor Is now competent to pro
vide by rules or orders of a legislative char
acter. Tbe commission wlli also have
power during the same period to appoint to
office such officers under tbe judicial, edu
cational and civil service systems and in the
municipal and departmental governments as
shall be provided."
Holes for the Interim.
Until Congress shall take action I directed
"Upon every division and branch of the
government of the Philippines must be Im
posed these Inviolable rules: That no per
son shall be deprived of life, liberty or prop
erty without due process of law; that pri
vate property shall not be taken for public
use without Just compensation; that in all
criminal prosecutions tbe accused shall en
Joy the right to a speedy and public trial, to
he tbforuied of the nature and cause of the
accusation, to be confronted with tbe wit
nesses against bim, to have compulsory
process for obtaining witnesses in his favor,
and to have tbe assistance of counsel for bis
defense; that excessive ball shall not be re
quired, nor excessive fines Imposed, nor cruel
and unusual punishment Inflicted: that no
persoa shall be put twice in jeopardy for the
same offense, or be compelled In any crimi
nal case to be a witness against himself;
that the right to le secure against unreason
able searchers anil seizures shall not be vio
lated: that neither slavery nor involuntary
servitude shall exist except as a punishment
for crime; that no bill of attainder or ex post
facto law shall le passed; that no law shall
be passed abridging tbe freedom of speech or
of the press, or tbe rights of the people to
peaceably assemble atid petition the govern
ment for a redress of grievances; that no
law shall be made respecting tbe establish
ment of religion or prohibiting tbe free ex
ercise thereof, and that the free exercise
and enjoyment of religions profession and
worship without discrimination or prefer
ence shall forever be allowed. .
Extending Education.
"It will be the dnty of tbe commission to
promote and extend, and. as they find occa
sion, to Improve, the system of education
already inaugurated by tbe military authori
ties. In doing this they should regard as of
first Importance tbe extension of a system
of primary education which shall be free to
all, and which shall tend to tit tbe people
for the duties of citizenship, and for tbe or
dinary avocations of a civilized community.
Especial attention should be at once
given to affording full opportunity to all the
people of the islands to acquire the use of
the Rngllsh language.
"Upon nil officers and employes of the
United States. Iioth civil and military,
should be impressed a sense of the duty to
observe not merely the material but the per
sonal nnd social rights of the people of the
islands, and to treat them with tbe same
courtesy aud respect for their personal dig
nity which the people of the United States
are accustomed to require from each other.
All Fledges Kept.
"The articles of capitulation of the City of
Manila on the 13th of August. 1S08, con
cluded with these words: 'This city, its in
habitants. Its churches, and religious wor
ship, its educational establishments and Its
private property of nil descriptions, are
placed under the special safeguard of the
faith and honor of the American army.
"I believe that this pledge has ben faith
fully kept. As high and sacred an obligation
rests upon the government of the linlted
States to give protection for property and
life, civil and religious freedom, and wise,
firm and unselfish guidance In tbe paths of
feace and prosperity to all the people of the
'hllipplne Islands.' 1 charge this commis
sion to labor for the full performance of this
obligation, which concerns the honor snd
conscience of their country, in the firm hope
that through their labors all the Inhabitants
of the Philippine Islands may come to look
back with gratitude to the day when God
gave victory to American arms at Manila
and set their land under tbe sovereignty and
the protection of tbe people of the United
Amnesty Proclaimed.
That oil might share in tbe regeneration
of tbe islands and participate in their gov
ernment. I directed Gen. MacArthur. the
military governor of the Philippines, to Is
sue a proclamation of amnesty, which con
tained among other statements the follow
ing: "Manila. P. I.. June 21. 1900. By direction
of the President of the United States the
undersigned announces amnesty, with com
plete immunity for the past and absolute
liberty of action for the future, to all per
sons who are now, or at any time since
Feb. 4, 1SU;, have been In Insurrection
against the l.'nited States in either a mili
tary or civil capacity, and who shall, within
a period of ninety days from the date there
of, formally renouuee ail connection with
such insurrection aud subscribe to a dec-
Striking Phrases from President McKinley's Letter.
It will be noted that the (Democratic) demand is for the immediate restora
tion of the free coinage of silver at 10 to 1. If another issue is paramount, this
Is Immediate. It will admit of no dclnv and will suffer no postponement.
We accept the Issue and again invite
ing another and we hope a permanent
nine another and we hone a tier
which will continue inviolable the public
m m w
It Is our purpose to establish in the Philippines a government suitable to the
wants and conditions of the inhabitants, and to prepare them for self-government,
and to give them self-government when, they are ready for It, and as
rapidly as they are ready for It.
There has been no time since the destruction of the enemy's fleet when we
could or should have left the Philippine archipelago. After the treaty of peace
was ratified no power but Congress could surrender our sovereignty or alienate a
foot of the territory thus ucquired.
Every effort has been directed to their (Filipinos) peace and prosperity, their
advancement aud well-being, not for our aggrandizement or for pride of might,
not for trade or commerce, not for exploitation, but for humanity and civilization.
The American question Is between duty and desertion. The American verdict
will be for duty aud against desertion, for the republic against both anarchy and
Honest co-operation of capital Is necessary to meet new business conditions,
and extend our rapidly increasing foreign trade, but conspiracies and combina
tions intended to restrict business, create monopolies and control prices should
be effectively restrained.
For labor a short day is better than a short dollar.
Unless something unforeseen occurs to reduce our revenues or Increase our ex
penditures, the Congress at lis next session should reduce taxation very ma
terially. .
We ought to own tbe ships for our carrying trade with the world, and we
ought to build tbem in American shipyards aud man them with American sailors.
'-ration acknowledlng and accepting the
-overelgnty nnd authority of tbe United
States In and over the Philippine Islands.
"The privilege herewith published Is ex
tended to all concerned without any reser
vation whatever, excepting that persons who
have violated the laws of war during the
period of active hostilities are not embraced
within the scope or tnis amnesty.
Pay Offered for Rifles.
"In order to mltlgrate as much as possible
consequences resulting from the various dis
turbances which since lbUo have succeeded
each other so rapidly, and to provide in
some measure for destitute Filipino soldiers
during the transitory period which must
Inevitably succeed a general peace, the mili
tary authorities of the United States wlli
pay 30 pesos to each man who presents a
rifle In good coudltlou."
Under their Instructions the commission,
composed of representative Americans of
different sections of the country and from
different political parties, whose character
and ability guarantee tbe most faithful In
telligence and patriotic service, are now
laboring to establish stable government un
der civil control, in which tbe Inhabitants
shall participate, giving tbem opportunity
to demonstrate bow far they are prepared
for self-government.
Quotes the Commission.
This commission, under date of Aug. 21.
1000. makes an interesting report, from
which I quote the following extracts:
"Hostility against Americans was orig
inally aroused by absurd falsehoods of un
scrupulous leaders. The distribution of
troops la 3X posts has by contact largely
dispelled hostility, aud steadily improved
temper of people. This Improvement Is fur
thered by abuses of insurgents. Large num
bers of people long for peace and are willing
to accept government under the United
"Insurgents not surrendering after defeat
divided into small guerrilla bands under gen
eral officers or became robbers. Nearly all
of tbe prominent generals and politicians of
the Insurrection, except Aguinaldo, have
since been captured or have surrendered and
taken the oa.h of allegiance.
"All northern Luzon, except two provinces,
substantially free from Insurgents. People
busy planting, and asking fcr municipal or
ganization. Railway and telegraph lines
from Manila to Dagupan. 122 miles, not mo
lested for five months.
liana Native Militia.
"Tagalogs alone active In leading guerrilla
warfare. In Negros, Cebu. Romblon, Mas
bate, sihuyan. Tablas. Bobol and other Phil
ippine Islands little disturbance exists, and
clvil government eagerly awaited.
"Four years of war and lawlessness la
parts of Islands have created unsettled con
ditions. Native constabulary and
militia, which should be orgsnized at once
will end this and the terrorism to which de
fenseless people are subjected. The natives
desire to enlist in these organizations. If
judiciously selected and officered, will be
efficient forces for maintenance of order, and
will permit early material reduction of
United States troops.
"Turning Islands over to coterie of Taga
log politicians wiil blight fair prospects of
enormous Improvement, drive out capital,
make life and property secular and relig
ious most insecure: banish by fear of cruel
proscription considerable body of conserva
tive Filipinos who have aided Americans la
well-founded belief that tbelr people are
not now fit for self-government, and reintro
duce same oppression and corruption which
existed in all provinces under M.ilolos in
surgent government during the eigbt months
of its control. The result will be factional
strife between jealous leaders, chaos and
anarchy, and will require and justify active
intervention of our governnieut or some
Trade Follows Peace,
"Business interrupted by war much Im
proved as peace extends. In Negros
more sugar in cultivation than ever before.
New forestry regulations give Impetus to
timber, trade and reduce high price of lum
ber. The customs collections for last quar
ter 5a per cent greater than ever in Spanish
history, and August collections show fur
ther increase. The total revenue for same
period one-third greater than In any quarter
under Spain, though cedula tax chief source
of Spanish revenue, practically abolished.
"Economy and efficiency of military gov
ernment have created surplus fund of $.
OOO.dOO, which should be expended in much
needed public works, notably improvement
of Manila harbor. With proper tar
iff and facilities Manila will become great
port of Orient." , ,.,
The commission Is confident that by a
Judicious customs law, reasonable land tax
and proper corporation franchise tax. im
position, of no greater rate than that in the
average American State will give less an
novance and with peace will produce reve
nues sufficient to pay expenses of efficient
government. Including militia and constabulary.-'
No Sign of Alliance.
They "are preparing a stringent civil ser
vice law giving equal opportunity to Fili
pinos and Americans, with preference for
the former where qualifications are equal,
to enter at the lowest rank aud by promotion
reach the head of the department.
"Forty-five miles of railroad extension
under negotiation will give access to a large
province rich In valuable minerals, a mile
high, with strictly temperate climate.
Railroad construction will give employment
to many and communication will furnish a
market to vast stretches of rich agricultural
lands." , ,.
They report that there are "calls from all
parts of the islands for public schools,
school supplies and English teachers, greater
than the conimlssloa can provide until a
comprehensive school system Is organized.
Night schools for teaching Knglish to adults
are being established In response to popular
demand. Native children show aptitude in
learning English. Spanish Is spoken by a
small fraction of the people, and In n few
veurs the medium of communication In the
courts, public offices and between different
tribes will be English.
Working for Humanity.
"Creation of central government within
eighteen months, under which substantially
all rights described In the bill of rights in
the federal constitution are to be secured to
the people of the Philippines, will bring to
them contentment, prosperity, education
and political enlightenment."
This shows to uiv countrymen what has
been and Is bwlng doue to bring the benefits
of libertv and good government to these
wards of" the nation. Every effort has been
the sound money forces to Join in
triumph, for an honest financial sj
w In-
directed to their peace and prosperity, their
advancement and well-being, not for our ag
grandizement nor for pride of might, not for
trade or commerce, not for exploitation, hut
for humanity and civilization, and for the
firotectlon of the vast majority of the popu
atlon who welcome our sovereignty against
the designing minority whose first demand
after the surrender of Manila by the Span
ish army was to enter the city that they
might loot It and destroy those not In sym
pathy with their selfish and treacherous de
Civil Service to Rule.
Nobody who will avail himself of the facts
will longer hold that there was any alliance
between our soldiers and the insurgents or
tnat any promise or Independence was made
to tbem. Long before their leader had
reached Manila they had resolved. If the
commander of the American navv would
give them arms with which to fight the
Spanish army, they would later turn upon
us. which they did murderously and without
the shadow of cause or justification.
There may be those without the means of
full Information who believe that we were
in alliance with the Insurgents and that we
assured mem that they should have Inde
pendence. To such let me repeat the facts:
On the 26th of Mar. 1808. Admiral Dewev
wss Instructed by me to make no alliance
with any party or faction In the Philippines
that would incur liability to maintain their
cause in tne future, aud he replied under
date of June 6, 1SOS:
"Have acted according to spirit of depart
ment's Instructions from the beginning, and
I have entered Into no alliance with the in
surgents or with any faction. This squadron
can reduce tbe defenses of Manila at anr
moment, but It Is considered useless until
the arrival of sufficient United States forces
to retain possession."
Denies Any Compact.
In the report of the first Philippine com
mission, submitted on Nov. 2. 18W, Admiral
Dewey, one of its members, said:
"No alliance of any kind was entered into
with Aguinaldo nor was any promise of in
dependence made to him at any time."
General Merritt arrived In tbe Philippines
n July 25. 1S9S, and a dispatch from Ad
miral Dewey to the government at Wash
ington said:
"Merritt arrived yesterday. Situation Is
most critical at Manila. Tbe Spanish may
surrender at any moment. Merritt's most
difficult problem will be how to deal with
the insurgents under Aguinaldo, who have
become aggressive and even threatening to
ward our army."
Here Is revealed the spirit of the Insur
gents as early as July, 1S9S, before the pro
tocol was signed, while we were still en
gaged In active war with Spain. Even then
the Insurgents were threatening our army.
Filipinos Took No Part.
On Aug. 13 Manila was captured, and of
this and subsequent events tbe Philippine
commission says:
"When the City of Manila was taken. Aug.
13, the Filipinos took no part in the attack,
but came following in with a view to loot
ing the city and were only prevented from
doing so by our forces preventing them froTB
th , ,aK"lo",l", claimed that he bad
iSV-'F?.' -!wOOC,?T" city. He demanded
Spanish prisoners. All these demands were
No Promises Made.
Generals Merritt. Greene and Anderson
wUo were in command at the beginning of
our occupation and until the surrender of
Maulla, state that there was no alliance
with the Insurgents and no promise to them
of independence. On Aug. 17, 198, General
Merritt was Instrncted that there must be
no Joint occupation of Maulla with the In
surgents. General Anderson, under date of
fr - U".. ne P"1" of Malacanan
for himself and the cession of all the
churches cf Manila, also that a part of the
rT-fr t3hkP1 m ,tne 5,Plrds as spoils
tL7au ShJ!Ulbl BlVn P' 'hove all.
that he should be clven th a-- .!'
Feb. 10. 1900, says that he was present at
the iuterview between Admiral Dewey and
the Insurgent leader, and that In this Inter
view Admiral Dewey made no promises
whatever. He adds:
"He (Aguinaldo) asked me If my govern
ment was going to recognize his govern
ment. I answered that 1 was there simply
In a military capacity; that I couid not ac
knowledge his government, because I had no
authority to do so."
Easy to Find Fault.
Would not our adversaries have sent
Dewey's fleet to Mauila to capture and de
stroy the Spanish sea power there, or. dis
patching it there, would they have with
drawn It after the destruction of the Span
ish Beet; and If the latter, whither would
they have directed to sail? Where could
It have gone? What port In the Orient was
opened to It?
Do our adversaries condemn the expedi
tion under the command of General Merritt
to strengthen Dewey In the distant ocean
and assist in our triumph over Spain, with
which nation we were at war? Was It not
our highest duty to strike Spain at every
vulnerable point, that the war might be
successfully concluded at the earliest prac
ticable moment?
Asks for Honest Opinion.
And was It not our duty to protect the
lives and property of tliose who came within
our control by the fortunes of war? Could
we have come awav at any time between
May 1. 1898, and the conclusion of peace
without a stain upon our good name? Could
we have come awav without dishonor at any
time after the ratification of the peace treaty
by the Senate of the United States?
There has been no time since the destruc
tion of the enemy's fleet when we could or
should have left the Philippine archipelago.
After the treaty of peace was ratified no
power but Congress could surrender our
sovereignty or alienate a foot of the terri
tory thus acquired. The Congress has not
seen fit to do the one or the other, and the
President had no authority to do either, if
he hHd been so inclined, which he was not.
So long as the sovereignty remains in us It
Is tbe duty of the executive, whoever he
may be. to uphold that sovereignty, and If it
be attacked to suppress Its assailants. Would
our political adversaries do lens?
Begun by Ineureents.
It has been asserted that there would have
been no fighting In the Philippines If Con
gress had declared Its purpose to give Inde
pendence to the Tairal Insurgents. The In
surgents did not wait for the action of Con
gress. They assumed the offensive, they
orened fire on our army.
Those who assert our responsibility for
the beginning of the conflict have forgotten
that before the treaty was ratified iu the
Senate, and while it was being debated In
that body, and while the Hacoti resolution
wns under discussion, on Feb. 4. ISO.!, the
Insurgents attneked the American army,
after being pre lously advised that the
American forces were under orders not to
fire upon them except In defense. Tbe pa
pers found in the receutly captured archives
of the insurgents demonstrate that this at
tack had been carefully planned for weeks
before it occurred.
Only One Coarse Open.
Their unprovoked assault upon our sol
diers at a time when the Senate was delib
erating upon the treaty shows that no ac
tion on our part except surrender and aban
donment would have prevented the fighting,
nnd leaves no doubt In any fair niiinl where
the responsibility rests for the shedding of
American blood.
With all the exasperated phraseniaking
of this electoral contest, we are Iu danger of
being diverted from the real contention. We
are Iu agreement with all of those who sup
ported the war with Spaiti, and also with
those who counseled the ratification of tbe
treaty of peace. Upon these two great es
sential steps there can be tut Issue, and out
of these came all of our responsibilities. If
others would shirk the obligations Imposed
by the war and the treaty, we must decline
to act further with them, and here the issue
was made.
It is our purpose to establish In the Philip
pines a governmenr suitable to the wants
and conditions of the Inhabitants, and to
prepare them for self-government, and to
give them self-government when they are
ready for It, nnd as rapidly as they are
ready for It. That I am aiming to do under
my constitutional authority, aud will con
tinue to do until Congress shall determine
the political status of the inhabitants of the
Plea for Consistency.
Are our opponents against the treaty? If
so. they must be reminded that it could uot
have been ratified in the Sennte but for their
assistauce. The Sennte which ratified the
treaty and the Congress which added Its
sanction by a large appropriation comprised
Senators and Kepresentatlves of the people
of all parties.
Would our opponents surrender to the In
surgents, abandon our sovereignty or cede It
to them? if that be not their purpose, then
It should be promptly disclaimed, for only
evil can result from the hopes raised by our
opponents in the minds of the Filipinos, that
with their success at the polls In November
there will be a withdrawal of our army and
of American sovereignty over the arcbipela- J
go, the complete Independence of the Taga- J
log people recognized and tbe powers or
government over nil the other peoples of the
archipelago conferred upon the Tagalog
Prolongs the Rebellion.
The effect of a belief In the minds of the
insurgents that this will be done has al
ready prolonged the rebellion and increases
the necessity for the continuance of a large
army. It Is now delaying full peace Iu the
archipelago aud the establishment of civil
governments, and has influenced mauy of
tbe Insurgents against accepting the lileral
terms of amnesty offered by (Jeu. MacArthur
under my direction. Hut for these false
hopes a considerable reduction could have
beu had In our military establishment In the
Philippines and the realization of n stable
government would be already at hand.
The American people are asked by our op
ponents to yield the sovereignty of the
United States in the Philippines to a small
fraction of the population, a single tribe out
of eighty or more inhabiting the archipelago,
a faction which wantonly attacked the
American troops in Manila while in right
ful possession under the protocol with
Spain, awaiting the ratification of the treaty
of peace by the Senate, and which has since
been iu active, open rebellion against tbe
United States. We are asked to transfer
our sovereignty to a small minority in tbe
islands without consulting the majority and
to abandon the largest portion of the popu
lation, which has been loyal to us. to the
cruelties of the guerrilla Insurgent bauds.
Demands Cannot Be Met.
More than this, we are asked to protect
this minority in establishing a government,
and to this end repress ail opposition of tbe
majority. We are required to set op a sta
ble government la the Interest of those who
have assailed our sovereignty and fired upon
our soldiers, and then maintain it at any
cost or sacrifice against Its enemies within
and against those having ambitious designs
from without.
This would require an armr and navy far
larger than Is now maintained in the Philip
pines and still more In excess of what will
be necessary with the full recognition of our
sovereignty. A military support of author
ity not our own, as thus proposed. Is tbe very
essence of militarism, which our opponents
In their platform oppose, hut which by tbelr
fiolicy would of necessity be established iu
ts most oflienslve form.
No Premium on Mnrder.
The American people will uot make the
murderers of our soldiers tbe agents of the
retiublic to convey the blessings of liberty
and order to the Philippines. They will not
make them the builders of the new common
rnlrh Such n course would be a betrayal
X our sacred obligations to the peaceful Flll
anrl would Dlace St the mercy of dan
gerous adventurers the lives aud property of
tbe natives and foreigners. It wonid make
possible ana easy ine commission or sucti
atrocities as were secretly planned, to !
executed on the- .22d of February, 1S9", in
the City of Manila, ichcn only the vigilance
of our armr prevented th attempt to assas
sinate our soldiers and ali foreigners and
pillage and destroy the city nfld its surround
ings. iu short, the proposition of those opposed
to us to continue all the obligations ia the
Philippines which now rest upon the gdvem
ment, only changing the relation from pa
cipal. which now exists, to that of suretv.
Our responsibility Is to remain, but our pow
er is to be diminished. Our obligation Is to
be no less, but our title is to be surrendered
to another power, which Is without experi
ence or training, or the ability to maintain a
stable government at home nnd absolutely
helpless to perform its international obliga
tions with the rest of tbe world.
Will Defend Our Title.
To this we are opposed. We should not
yield our title while our obligations last.
Iu the language of our platform, "Our au
thority should not be less than our responsi
bility," and our present responsibility Is to
establish our authority in every part of the
No government can so certainly preserve
tbe peace, restore public order, establish
law. justice and stable conditions as ours.
Neither Congress nor the Executive can es
tablish a stable government in these Islands
except under our right of sovereignty, our
authority and our flag. And this we are do
ing. Ve could not do It as a protectorate power
so completely or so successfully as we are
doing It now. As tbe sovereign power we
can initiate action and shape means to ends,
and guide the Filipinos to self-development
and self government.
As a protectorate power we conld not Ini
tiate action, but would be compelled to fol
low aud uphold u people with no capacity
yet to go alone. In the one case we can pro
tect both ourselves and the Filipinos from
being Involved in dangerous complications;
in the other we could not protect even the
Filipinos until after tbelr trouble had come.
Consent of the Governed.
Besides. If we cannot establish any gov
ernment of our owu without the consent of
the governed, as our opponents contend,
then we could not establish a stable govern
ment for them or make ours a protectorate
without the like consent, and neither the
majority of the people uor a minority of the
people have Invited us to assume It. We
couid not maintain a protectorate even with
the cousent of the governed without giving
provocation for conflict aud possibly costly
Our rights In the Philippines are now free
from outside Interference and will continue
so In our present relutions. They would not
he thus free In any other relation. We will
cot give up our own to guarantee another
Our title is good. Our peace commission
ers believed they were receiving a pood title
when they concluded the treaty. The execu
tive believed it was n good title when he
submitted It to the Senate of the United
States for Its ratification. Tbe Senate be
lieved It was a good title when they gave it
their constitutional assent, and the Con
gress seems not to have doubted Its com
pleteness when they appropriated $20,000,000
provided by the treaty.
Title Is Unquestionable.
If any who favored its ratification believed
It gave us a bnd title tboy were not sincere.
Our title Is practically identical with that
under which we hold our territory acquired
since the beginning if tbe government, and
under which we have exercised full sov
ereignty and established government for the
It Is worthy of note that no one outside of
the United States disputes the fullness and
integrity of the cession. What, then, is the
real Issue on this subject? Whether It is
paramonnt to any other or not. It Is whether
we shall be responsible for the government
of the Philippines, with the sovereignty aud
authority which enables us to guide tbem to
regulated liberty, law. safety and progress,
or whether we shnll be responsible for the
forcible and arbitrary government of a mi
nority, without sovereignty aud authority
cn our part, and with only tbe embarrass
ment of a protect orate, which draws us into
their troubles without the power of prevent
ing tbem.
Obligations of War.
There were those who two years ago were
rushing t:s ou to war with Spain who are
unwilling now to accept its clear conse
quences, as there are those among us who
advocated the ratification of the treaty of
peace, but now protest against Its obliga
tions. Nations which go to war must lie
prepared to accept its resultant obligation,
and when they make treaties must keep
Those who profess to distrust the liberal
and honorable purposes of the administra
tion In its treatment of the Philippines are
not justified. Imperialism has no place In
its creed or conduct. Freedom is a rock up
on which the Republican party was bulhled
and now rests. Liberty Is the great Republi
can doctrine for which the people went to
war and for which a million lives were of
fered nnd billions of dollars expended to
make It a lawful legacy of all without the
consent or master or slave.
Strain of Hypocrisy.
There Is a strain of Ill-concealed hypocrisy
in the anxiety to extend the constitutional
guarantees to the people of the Philippines,
while their nullification Is ojM-nly advocated
at home. Our opponent may distrust them
selves, but they have no right to discredit
the good faith and patriotism of tbe major
ity of the people who are opiosed to them.
They may fear the worst form of imperial
ism with the helpless Filipinos In tbelr
hauds. but If they do It Is because they have
parted with the spirit and faith of the fath
ers and have lost the virility of the founders
of the party which they profess to represent.
The Republican party doesn't have to as
sert its devotion to the Declaration of Inde
pendence. That Immortal instrument of the
fathers remalued unexecuted until tbe peo
ple, uuder the lend of the Republican party
Iu the awful clash of battle, turned Its prom
ises Into fulfillment. It wrote into tbe Con
stitution the amendments guaranteeing po
litical equality to American citizenship, and
it has never broken them or counselled oth
ers iu breaking tbem. it will not be guided
In its conduct by one set of principles at
home snd another set in the new territory
belonging to tbe United States.
Doctrine of Lincoln.
If our opponents would only practice as
well as preach the doctrines of Abraham
Lincoln there would be no fear for the safe
ty of our Institutions at home or their fright
ful Influence in any territory over which our
ting floats.
Umpire has been expelled from Porto Rico
snd the Philippines by American freemen.
The flag of the republic now floats over these
isluuds as nn emblem of rightful sovereign
ty. Will the republic stay nnd dispense to
their inhabitants the blessings of liberty,
education and free Institutions, or steal
away, leaving them to anarchy or Imperial
ism? The American question Is - between duty
and desertion. The American verdict wiil
be for dnty nnd against desertion, for the
Republic against both anarchy and imperial
ism. The country has been fully advised of the
purposes of the United States In China, and
they will be faithfully adhered to us already
Sufferers in Pekin.
The nation Is filled with gratitude that tbe
little band, among tbem many of our own
blood, who for two months had been sub
jected to privations and peril by tbe attacks
of t'ltiless hordes at tbe Chinese capital, ex
hibiting supreme courage in the face of de
spair, have been enabled by God's favor to
greet their rescuers and find shelter under
their own flag.
The people not alone of this land, but of
all lands, have watched and prayed through
the terrible stress and protracted agony of
the helpless sufferers In I'ekiu: aud while
at times the dark tidings seemed to make all
hope vain, the rescuers never faltered in the
heroic fulfillment of their noble task. We
are grateful to our owu soldiers and sailors
and marines, nnd to ail the brave men who,
though assembled under many standards,
representing peoples and races 'strangers in
country and speech, were yet united iu the
sacred mission of carrying succor to the be
sieged, with a success that Is now the cause
or a woria s rejoicing.
Pass in k of Sectionalism.
Not only have we reason for thanksgiving
for our material blessings, but we should re
joice iu the complete uniiication of tbe peo
ple of all sections of our country that has
so happily developed in the last few years
and made for us a more perfect union. The
obliteration of old differences, the common
devotion to the flag aud the common sac
rlfices for its honor, so conspicuously shown
by the men of the North and South in the
Spanish war, have so strengthened the ties
of friendship end mutual respect that noth
ing can ever again divide us.
The nation faces the new century grate
fully and hopefully, with Increasing love of
x.-iiUtry. with firm faith In Its free institu
tions", end with high resolve that they "shall
not perljil from the earth." Verv respectfu