The Plattsmouth daily herald. (Plattsmouth, Nebraska) 1883-19??, September 23, 1887, Image 3

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Importance of Careful Preparation of
fioll In Wheat Culture How to fUve
J Seed CornA KtafT That Insure Surety
In Handling Itull.
The finbjcct of horns on cuttle hns kn
ery mm h iliBcusKed of late, anl it lias
iHrt-n proven in many cases that they nro
expensive npiKiMlanea. This is frequently
denionstrated in tlie handling of hulls. It
fU;n occurs that even a pt hull will be
come on raMl nn I Jnllict wrfous injuries
When led only by u ring in the nose.
In the accompanying llyuro is shown a
device vouched for by a. Rural New
Yorker correspondent, who claims that
with it tin? handling of horned animals is
comparatively pufe. If thc chain from
any cause should come loose, a weapon of
defense is still in thu hauler's hands. Take
n lon fork handle, rivet an iron strap
over it with six or ciirht inches of light
chain attached, to which fasten a good
malleable harness snap. J'ut the snap in
the nose ring and the animal can bo led
Without the rope if so desired.
Acrloult urn! ":ilrs in October.
The following state and provincial fair3
Lave been announced for October:
Alabama Montgomery, Oct. 17-23.
Canadian Exposition Toronto, Oct.
Colorado rucblo, Oct. -1-8.
Georgia Macon, Oct. 21, Nov. 2.
Missouri St. l-iouis, Oct. 3-8.
Missouri Fat stock, Kansas City, Oct.
27, Nov. 3.
Mississippi Jackson, Oct. 17-22.
North Carolina Ualeigh, Oct. 19-21.
IMedmont Exposition Atlanta, Go.,
Oct. 10-22.
Texas Dallas, Oct. 20, Nov. 5.
Virginia Richmond, Oct. 20-28.
How to 3Iak n Good Jtollor.
Tho Importance of a good roller on the
farm is too well known uud appreciated
to require comment. It is often a ques
tion, however, how to secure one. Tho
following tfescrir ion, therefore, of a homo
made roller by a corrcsiondent in Indiana
Farmer will bo welcome to many readers:
Cat three logs 13 inches in diameter
3 feet 2 or 4 inches long; around each
make a frame. Set two rollers end to
end, with a space of about 7 or 8 inches
between them; make jour tongue so high
that the piece across the end (b) will be
about 8 inches longer tliau it is from tho
middle of one frame to the middle of the
other; about 4 inches from each end of
said cross piece bore a 5-S inch hole, and
with the same bit bore iu the center of
each frame, both front and back. Now
when the tongue is raised level with thu
frames, the holes through the cross piocs
In the end of tongue will correspond with
those in the centers of the two frames,
front; slip a washer about an inch in
thickness between tha frames and said
cross piece, and bolt them with 5-8 inch
Now make a bar (c) the same length of
the cross piece on the end of the tongue,
bore a 5-8 inch hole in each end, same
distance apart as in cross piece (l) and it
will correspond with the holes in the cen
ter of the two frames, back; slip an inch
washer between said bar and said frames
end bolt with 5-8 inch bolt. Now you
Lave a roller to roll com, or a dead fur
row, or a ridge, only" the tongue is "lim
ber" or weak. To remedy this, fashion a
piece something like the half of a wagon
bound, fasten that part that would be
front in hounds, just behind the double
trees on the tongue (a), Fig. 2. It will
then arch or raise above the rollers, and
ehotild extend twenty inches or two feet
back of the bar that connects the two
frames back; fasten a support from said
bar up to said bound, place a seat on said
bound where the weight of the driver will
balance the tongue, and you have a roller
that will roll the two insides of a ditch or
the outsides of a ridge. Fasten the third
roller by a coupling pole twenty inches or
two feet long to the middle cf the bar
that connects the two front rollers to
gether, and it will roll the space left be
tween the two front ones.
Sowing Wheat.
The manner in which wheat is sown is
of vital importance, for its influence is felt
to a great extent right on to the harvest
ing of the crop. An all important matter is
the thorough preparation of the seed bed.
That it pays to carefully prepare the soil
for wheat has been proven time and
again, and yet not one field in ten is prop
erly stirred and pulverized before the
seed is sown. Remember that it is im
possible in the care of wheat to make tho
soil too mellow or too line. All work
done in this direction is amply paid for by
the future crop.
It also pays torill in the seed, even if
one has to hire tho drill. It insures tho
even dropping and covering of the seed,
and is a saving of seed. Avoid the use of
foul or imperfect seed; it is a waste of
time, labor and land to sow wheat that hr.3
not been carefully screened and winnowed
to free it from foreign and imperfect seed.
fsx. sections where smut is likely to appear
rn MM r!
n JTorerzcC
avail yonrsclf of imch preventive meas
ures as treating the seed to brino or a so
lution of vitriol.
Each farmer must decide in great mean
tire tho question as to what variety of
wheat to how. It in not safe plan to
mako an entire change in any one season,
and especially whero tho previous yields
havo proven fairly satisfactory. A safe
rule is to fow the soil devoted to tho main
crop in some well tested wheat in your
own locality, and experiment with prom
ising new sorts on a small scale. A bushel
of god, clear seed, drilled in, is considered
an 'iinplo quantity for one acre by many
farmers. Tlie usual rulo is from one
bushel to five pecks, drilled in, and about
one-half bushel more sown broadcast.
Siivlrf Kcrcl Corn.
Tho Importance of saving seed corn by
careful hclection has been preached from
time to time out cf date, and repeated ex
periment has proven the necessity forcaro
in the storing of the corn selected for
seed. In sections where short seasons
prevail early varieties are desirable, hence
carliness ought to be promoted even iu
sorts already curly by selecting such from
stalks that first ripen their cars. The im
portance of choosing fair-sized, well-developed
ears, taken from stalks which
bore at least tw o car.';, is upiarent to every
ono who has given tho subject any
In the selection of seed corn too much
care cannot be exercised in keeping a
well-established and desirable variety
pure. It should bo borne in mind that
two sorts growing w ithin a quarter of a
mile of one another are liable to mix,
hence it is not wise to save seed from
such corn.
There does not appear to bo any safer,
easier or better mode of saving corn for
seed than the old tinieono of pulling back
ami braiding the husks of twenty or more
cars together, and then hanging these
braided strands from the rafters of a corn
house, asmoke house, thu attic or other
dry place. The corn must be kept dry
anil out of the reach of rats and mice. It
is a wise plan to select oidy tho perfectly
matured ears for seed; these dry more
quickly and are not so liable to mold.
Not a few farmers always plan to hang
their seed corn between the rafters of
their smoke houses, believing that, in ad
dition to the dry atmosphere there found,
the smoke that permeates the kernels acts
as a preventive to insect pests after the
seed is planted.
Tho Henslun Fly.
There are two broods of tho Hessian fly
brought to perfection each year, one in
the fall and one in the spring. The ma
ture female insect deposits its eggs upon
the leaves of the young plant soon afT
these appear above ground. As sooi:
the eggs hatch the young worms
their way down the leaf to its base, where
they rei""!') i".;-een it am1 t':o stem near
the ii - . for
the larva to atiaiufuli i.e. lts.-i then
is hard anil brown, and, to the unaided
eye, the insect presents the appearance of
a small flaxseed. In this condition it re
mains until spring, when tho fly comes
forth and laj'3 its eggs, and so the opera
tion is repeated. The preventive meas
ures that have from time to time been de
vised by scientists and practical farmers
may be briefly told as follows:
Sow a part of the wheat early, and if
affected by the liy put in tho rest of the
seed after Sept. 20. The idea is that by
destroying the first brood the second will
not appear.
Partially affected wheat is sometimes
saved by tho use of fertilizers and care
ful cultivation, and if winter wheat, the
lields may be recuperated in tho spring.
Many of the eggs and larvtD may be de
stroyed by pasturing with sheep and close
cropping of winter wheat in November or
early December. Some claim that roll
ir r tho ground will answer nearly as
Another remedy is to sow hardy varie
ties of wheat, especially those that tiller
I,i:nc, soot and salt are named as
special remedies, and it is also very gener
ally recommended to rako olf the stubble.
Objectious are, however, urged by scien
tists against too close cutting and burning
of the stubble, as this is liable to result in
destroying useful parasites, the ichneu
mon fly among the rest. It has been esti
mated that these parasites (which, by the
by, farmers often mistake for the pests)
destroy at least nine-tenths of all the
Hessian flies hatched.
Keeping Cider Sweet.
There is no process known that will
keen cider sweet without deterioratiug its
quality somewhat, but there are various
methods for arresting fermentation and
preventing it from becoming sour. Pro
fessional cider makers sometimes nso
Shaw's Antiseptic Solution; others, who
prefer to avoid patented articles, employ
sulphite of lime, which is added after fer
mentation has proceeded until the cider
has acquired the acid lasto desired. The
powder is iirst mixed h? a quart or so of
cider and then poured into the cask and
thoroughly shaken. Do not mistake sul
phate of lime for sulphite of lime; the latter
is the correct article.
Tho Cabbago Worm.
The cabbage worm has not been visibly
affected by the hard things said against
him, nor have tho numerous sure cure
remedies sensibly aCected his appetite.
Peter Henderson suggests the application
of alum water, one pound of pulverized
alum to three gallons of water. This will
not injure the plant and may kill tho
worm. Pyrethrum, cither in powder or
solution, is effective. The great difficulty
is to get auy preparation on the worms,
and to repeat the application as often as
the successive broods hatch out.
Agricultural News.
Rut few apples are expected outside
of New England and New York.
T. V. Munr-on has been re-elected pres
ident of the Texas Horticulture society.
The honey production the present sea
son is reported generally to be a poor one.
The experimental work at Houghton
farm, Orange county, N. Y., has been
A botanical museum is to be established
in connection with tho experimental farm
at Ottawa.
According to Bra-.lstreet's the New York
hop crop will be about one-half of a for
mer average, but the Pacific coast prom
ises a larger yield.
The tomato crop is almost a failure in
South Carolina is to have two experi
mental stations.
The corn crop of the south is unpreco
dently large.
The Louu-iana sugar crop is reported to
be ahead of every crop since the war.
The Illinois state board cf agriculture
declines to recognize the Galloway breed
of cattle as a breed, but classes them the
same as the Aberdeen-Aligns.
The I'rest-rvatlon of Garden Seed All
About the Topular Pyrethrum Insect
I'owder liar bed Wire Fence with
Growing Tree for Support.
In the constructing of barbed .wire
fences it Bomciimes happens that growing
trees are used as posts for support. If
the wire is fastened directly to the tree,
as some have practiced, the growth of the
tree buries it In the bark and wood, whero
the presence of continual moisture and the
retention of tho water of every shower
tend to produce rusting, and renewing, ii
ever necessary, is rendered difficult.
The accompanying figures represent a
mode which has been successfully adopted
for using growing trees as posts for tho
support of barbed wire fences and recom
mended by Tho Country Gentleman.
Tho usual objections to barbed wire on
trees in this mode are obviated, as will bo
seen in tho cut, by placing a narrow board
or plank against tlie face of the tree, se
curing it with two or three nails, and
then fastening the wires to this board, as
shown in the figures. A board or plank
three or four inches wide answers the
purpose, and it may be pine or cedar. If
the trees to which tho wiro is fastened
are in a line where there is no danger of
animals becoming injured with the barbs,
four wires will make a good and durable
barrier. But if injury is feared from tho
wiro to cattle and horses, a visible ob
. motion must be provided, such as a
small rip rap wall, which may be eighteen
or twenty inches high, more or less, tho
sit.::os being laid loosely in a straight line
(see 1 ig. 1). " This plan will in m ost cases
servo as well as a regularly lai d wall of
stones. Animals are not dispose 'J to tread
on the stones.
Er.t, says the authority quoted from. If
stones are not to be had and tho trees arc
not further apart than the length of fence
boards, the fence may bo rendered visible
by nailing a loard between the two upper
wires, as shown in Fig. 2. Thero is still
another way to prevent harm to animals
which run in adjacent fiejds. This is to
cut or plow a small open ditch on each,
side and raise a bank of earth between,
them and under the line of the fence.
But this cannot be adopted for trees, as
the roots will prevent the plowing of the
furrows. When posts are set it is an easy
and efficient way to protect animals, as
they are held in check by the ditches and
tho bank of earth; and it obviates the use
of the lower wire, and the posts being
held by the bank need not be set so deep.
"When it is desired to run a barbed fence
through woods or other plantation where
the trees are not in a straight line care
must be taken to have each tree stand in
the obtuse angle which it forms, the wire
being always placed on the outside whero
it will be firmly held in position.
The great convenience and economy of
using growing trees instead of posts is an
additional inducement for plantir.j nar
row timber belts at the boundaries of the
principal fields.
Pyrethrum Insect Powder.
Powdered pyrethrum, sold under vari
ous names, as buhach, Persian insect
powder, Dalmatian insect pova'.er, etc,
has the past few seasons grown s teadily in
favor as an insecticide in farm and gar
den. It has, in a word, assunif d sufficient
importance to entitle it to a familiar ac
quaintance with every farmer and every
housswife. Some confusion exists owing
to the number of names b y which pyre
thrum is introduced in our markets. That
grown in the United Sta tes, notably iu
California, is sold under tt.e name of bu
hach. The imported pow der, Pyrethrum
roseum, is grown in the region 6outh of
the Caucasus mountains, and is known in
commerce as Persian insect powder, while
that grown in Dalmatia is termed Dalma
tian powder.
Pyrethrum is not poisonous to higher
animals, nence its present
among those who dislike to handle such.
poisons as London purple and Paris green.
While not a poison to man and beast,
pyrethrum has proven a valuable remedy
for many farm and household pe?;ts. Its
active principle is a volatile oil wl uch acts
on the nervous system of the inse ct. Tho
powder should be kept dry and s tored in
It is employed both dry and in solu-
tions. At
the Ohio Experiment Station
the best results have been gaineci with the
dry powder diluted not more than five
times with flour, finely slaked, lime or
other finely powdered substances . At this
station the powder is thorough ly mixed
with the dilutent and allowed to stand for
twenty-four hours in a closed ves sel before
using to gain the best results. It Is ap
plied with a good hand bellovf s. Prom
the experience at this station it 1 9 believed
that pyrethrum will be found zn osfc bene
ficial for smooth bodied caterfiil tars, such
J 4
as cabbage worms and others like them.
On tho woolly caterpillars it had little or
no effect and did not prove a euro remedy
for beetles.
Ou tho experimental grounds of The
Rural New Yorker, where preference Is
given to the California buhach, successful
results have been obtained by using tho
buhach in solution. Mr. Carman, who
mado tho experiments, insists uion tho
use of a hand force pump and thu cyclone
nozzle for best effects.
With the above solution applied as here
stated, ho has been able to destroy the
rose tugs, which were present in largo
numlers this season on his farm. Tho
economy of the use of pyrethrum or bu
hach, in Mr. Carman's opinion, depends
upon its application as a line spray or
vapor, when tho samo quantity of water
will go fifty times as far as if spriukled
on the plants, while the timo required to
do tho work will be perhaps twenty
times less. At tho Ohio station the pow
der is applied through a bellows. One
pound of pyrethrum diluted with other
powdered substance three to live times
was found abundant tu dust an aero of
Directions for Saving Garden Seed.
Seeds of all kinds, says American Agri
culturist, should be fully ripe when
gathered, but it is also important to har
vest them as soon as they are ripe. For
keeping small quantities of seeds, paper
bags are preferable to cloth, as they afford
better protection against moisture and
insects. Always mark each package with
tho name of the seed contained in it, and
the year in which it grew. Cold docs not
injure tho vitality of seeds, but moisture
is detrimental to all kinds.
Melou, cucumber, squash and pumpkin
seeds should be taken only from ripe, per
fect shaped specimens. In a small way
tho seeds may bo simply taken out, spread
on plates or tins and dried. Larger quan
tities have to bo washed before drying, to
remove the slime that adheres to them.
When tho seeds aro thoroughly dried, tie
them in bags, and keep in a dry place
secure from mice or rats.
Beets, parsnips, turnips, carrots, onions,
cauliflower and cabbage will not produce
seed until the second year. Set out in
early May strong, well matured plants of
last season's crop. When the seed is ripe,
cut tlie stalks and put under cover to dry,
then beat out tho seeds and tie in paper
McaHiiriug; Corn in the Crib.
Many rules aro given by which the
number of bushels of corn in a crib may
be ascertained. But these aro more or
less untrustworthy from the fact that
they assume that two bushels of corn on
the ear aro equal to one of shelled corn;
whereas, in point of fact some corn will
not make it, while some will morethan do
so. These rules, however, often serve a
convenient purpose, affording a fairly
reasonable estimate, a much closer one
than may be1 had from mere measurement
of the eye. Following aro a few such
rules, any ono of which may be employed
as an approximate estimate; the first is
most generally used:
1. Measure tho length, breadth and
height of the crib, inside the rail; multi
ply these together and divide by two.
Tho result is the number of bushels of
shelled corn.
2. Level the corn so it is of equal depth
throughout. Multiply the length, breadth
and depth together, and this product by
four, and cut olf one of the figures to tho
right of the product. Tho remaining fig
ures will represent tho uumber of bushoL
of shelled com.
3. Multiply length by height and then
by width, add two ciphers to the result,
and divide by 124. This gives the num
ber of bushels of ears. Another rule is
to proceed as above to obtain tho cubic
feet, and then assume that ono and one
lifth cubic feet make one bushel of ears of
4. Multiply length by breadth, and the
product by the height, all in inches;
divide this by 2,7-i, and the quotient will
be the number of bushels of ears. From
two-thirds to one half of this will bo the
number of bushels of shelled corn, de
pending on the kind and quality.
Management of Geese.
Geese aro far hardier and much easier
to rear than turkeys, and, if fat, bring al
waj3 a good price in tho market. la &
word, these fowls pay very well indeed
for keeping, and the farmer will, as a
rule, Cud it worth his while to havo a few
of them iu the autumn when his grain
crops are off the land.
Of tho various breeds of geese tho Tou
louse is the best known, and with tho
Embden, are the chief ones for commer
cial purposes. The Toulouse is also called
the gray goose, because its plumage is of
that color, while the Embden is called the
white goose, its plumage being white
t.'iroughout. Notwithstanding tlie . fact
that tho feathers of Embden geese bring a
hi gher price than do those of the Tou
louse, the latter, as has been intimated, is
the more popular breed. The Toulouse
are ood layers and their flesh is tender,
jn'.cy and well flavored. They often reach
an enormous weight. Their heavy bodies
lit them for close cooping and they aro
easily confined by a low fence and will
thrive on less water than other varieties
of geese.
'"is. , :
.- "'Jii'sAr-
TorxorsE geese.
To make goose keeping a paying busi
ness, however, a good sized pond, with a
plentiful supply of water and pasturage,
t are inuispensaDie. rrouue mese iows
nrith i house senarate from other kinds
I and see that it is supplied regularly with
clean straw. Goslings to oe lattenea ior
winter use should be turned on the stub
bles as fast as the grain crops are har
vested. With ample range and plenty of
water and oats, they will soon be ready
for market. It need hardly be told that
geese must be kept out of the mowing
trrass and corn fields or they will soon do
' damage that will place them on the wrong
side or tne prom, amx loss tuiumu,
Items of General Interest.
The New York State Dairymen's associ
ation is agitating the question of dairy
Many of the states show a revival of the
Grange order.
The leading cranberry growing 6tate3
are Massachusetts, New Jersey, Wiscon
sin and Connecticut. In New Jersey there
are some 5,200 acres under cranberry cultivation.
The wine quality oi'tfooda 10 ix.rcciit. cheaper than any house west of
tlie Miirsippi. Will never he undersold. Call and Ijeeuiivineed.
X-e30 S.E:3Eja-i:S:8.SKrC3r
tmm aJLiuLa
Parlors, EBcclrooiiis, BJisESEtg-rooins.
fkitchens, Hallways und OiUvvSj
Where a magnificent stock of Goods and Fair I 'rices
Will kcei font-tunlly mi liiuul
! RI9 !
b am mmw
"Wall I'aper ami a Full 1Aw of
Corner Pearl and Seventh Streets.
.at," Plaster, SUsda?
Lowest 32Sa4s. ezs CasSx
Asrrnls vim
y to
ra a
11 a M J
jriz i
PLA'I T.SM( )LIi 1 1, N i:i ; C A s w A
a full and complete stock of juii-e
inio Olio
Sash, Blinds,
Muu y Li 6
an- r.u M'llritinjr miIwi ij i
ii the wi:Ki;i. ii H!!)ii i iri.j; ;fj
nuilcr i?s sjp urr i i-;ii; .nu.i..-. itii
1't CEVIN ;re making Mini- 1: liir
lfr tlay Willi rvy liUle rflolt, We v..iil
ur!il. fit t 1IM ;tt II lll f'ifll1v l. r. .1
llif-trict Fair, ar.l in vt-r.v lown it; U;
nittd Mann- tr i r!eitti;.N i:l j,
aptnts u1 lit at onte Viiv lilwral ci t:;i,i:- r.J
moi s and eOi vriz for taist Ji'st. 1VJ' ?
l (ll!(a;i that aiiv tie en:: luivi-'I INI VT.i-i;I.Y
FIll'.E PKLSS snt to t'uir inldrej-s lour
iloiitlis on trial for 2', C-nts. Address
SDotroit, 2VIicXx lfl