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About Capital city courier. (Lincoln, Neb.) 1885-1893 | View Entire Issue (May 12, 1888)
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.re- - -,-C. UV& 4- r
H," ."I f ll'l
Tim Unit In or (Hiiiiiwllnrivllto
in May, 180!).
AoroB3 tho Eappnhnnnook and
'Stonewall" Jnrl,iin' Ureal Mnw-iiictit
Ar.iuntlllio lliili.n IHhIiI sUI.-' I'IrIiI.
Heroic lii'iitli r MnJ. IVlcr Kceium,
rlriltfw lib's Ciiriis Capture Mnijit's Hill
nl rri'ilcrlt lolmrg.
Tho Iwttlo of Chnneollorxvllle, Vn., wos
fought May 1, a, 3 ami I, IMS3, liotwoon tho
Army of tlio Putoinat Urn, Joseph Hooker
romiiinmllug, mill thoCuufislcniin At my of
Noi them Virginia, Hooker's coi'is itui
utitmlcrs wcion follows. KitHt roipH, MnJ,
(Ion, J, F. Ito.vnoliUj Second, MnJ. Oen,
1). N. Couch) Thliil, MnJ. (leu. 1). P. Sickles;
Fifth, MnJ. Gen. 0. (I. Monde; Blxlh, MnJ.
Oca. .1. Bodgwhk; Klovonth, MnJ. (Ion. O. U.
Hownnl; Twelfth, MnJ. Oen. 11. W Blixuin.
Gen. Alfred licusoutou was nt tlio licml of
Oen, lst liinl around lilin I1I1 trusted com
manders "Stonewall" Jackson, J, K. II.
Htuuit, R. P.. Rhislea, A. P. lllll mill .Tubal
A. l'july, Un Ixith sides thoy are tho uiimcti
fmnllliir to thtwti who have followed theso
pages. Tint huttlo of C'hiuictlloiitlo re
sulted unfnvnralily to tlio Union arms. Tho
lighting I pnuwily tll Idod Into two parts
that around tlio village of Chiiuccllorsvillo
nml thnt nt "Froilci leksburg. Hero tlio old
ground mih fought ovcrugulu.
All winter tho Army of tho Potomua hml
lnlnquiitlncnmp nt Htnironl HUN, on tho
cost bank of tho Rnpjmliannoek, opposite
Froilci leksburg, Just whore tho ilcs(H'iuto
hnttlo of Decent! kt Imil loft thoni. Hooker's
effective lighting forco in tho spring amount
ed to ll.'I.uoo men, of whom 11,1)00 wore
cnvnlry, Is Imil nlsiut (tt.OM men, uniting
them il.OOO cnvnlry. Uii'm force cotislshxl of
Jnckson's corpsniul (tart of l.ongstreot's corps,
unilor IafayctUMcLnws, beside tho cavalry
under J. 11 II. Btuart, nml thu artillery
I aw wos a muster of thonrt of fortifying
nml thoroughly hml ho put Into n statu of de
fense hU side of thu Hiipivihnimock. Por
over forty miles along thnt ilvcr Hh light
bank hi lstt.nl with foitlllontlon nml gunnls.
lly consulting tho iu'coiiiuui lug innp tho
reader will get n clour Idea of tlio country
about Cliuneollorsvlllo. It wns extremely
dllllcult for mi nrinyto j)oiictrato this region.
Bo iloimo were tlio tlilckcU thnt tho npproncli
of mi nrmy couhl not Im weii throiiKh them.
(leu. Hooker un n iiinii of lino Miltllerly
pnwenco, eiy jtopulnr with Imth tlio nrmy
in tlio llcltl anil tlio clvillnut nt homo. Ho
wiw mi entliiiiliistlo, ovon linimtlont, iiinn.
nml tlenlretl to Mrlko n blow which Mionlil
justify tho coiiliiletiTO felt in him. Ho wiih
popularly cnlleil "PIrIi1iik Joo HiwUcr."
As soon ni uprliiR openetl in 1WU ho prepared
for n grent battle. Ho wax tho mora nnxlous
to hare it oer mk)H, an tho term of service
of n lnriTo numlwr of hl men would soon ex
pire. IheMiwcrutlio nine inontlw' nntl tho
two jeniV nolillerx. HU troops weioln mnu
nlflccnt coihlltlotu Oen. Hiwker himself
Mlil bo hml "tho flno-st nrmy upon tlio
planet." Gen. Sliurmnn, In his irnper in Tho
Ceiittuy, hnys that tbo fnto of tho war do
Iicniletl on tho Army of tho lVtomnc.
Tlio army headquarter wero nt Pnlmoutb,
village on tho left bank of tho Rappahan
nock, op)sto Ki-ederickiibiirg. All tho w in
ter Hooker had Ikwi planning hU cninpaigii.
Tbo plan wimdwl well. Gen. Gi-orgo Stono
man, with 10,000 cavalry, wns to start two
weeks in advance of tho main moicinuiit,
cross tho river nlwvo Lso'u fortification, nt
tho upiwrforiN of tbo ltappnlmnnook.
Hooker oxjectttl great things from this
cavalry movement, which is Known in tho
war history as Stonemnn'H Haiti. Tbo object
of tho commnnillug genoral of tho Army of
tbo Potomno was nt lost what It should bnvo
been from tho llrxt, ibo capture, not of Itlcb
tnoml, but of Leo's army. Por this purpose
Btouonmu, with bin cavalry, wns to mako u
descent upon Ieo's coinmmilcntioiM with
Richmond, destroy nillroatU and tolegrnnhr
nndcutolC the Ctinfwleruto miny MipplW
To oirittually do thU tlio cavalry twin hewi
ratetl into two columns, one under Avercll,
tho otbeMiuiler llufonl. They wore to work
at dlireivnt points, mid tbon, after tholr task
was accomplished, toiiio together again in
tbo rear of UwV army. Cutting oir bis rui-
Jdios would necessarily cause Isj to glvo up
-'roilericksburg and fall back toward Rich
mond. There Ktonpinan's cavalry was to In
tercept him, worry him ami detain him.
Riving Hooker a Uinnco to get in his work
with tho main Union army. Hooker charged
Btoucmau us follow:
'Harass tbo enemy day anil night, on tb
March and in tho camp, unceasingly. If you
annot cut off from bis column largo ellcca,
do not full to tako small ouch. Let your
watchword bo Figbtl and let all voir orders
April HI BtoHoman moved out on his raid
But it appeared ax if fato itsolf sot to work
to thwart Ilookor'splani In tbo Chancellors
tllla campaign. Tlio spring rains, which
OrtNfcM. 3 te v S.
CMDONSJlUt J g .
eeini to have I'wiflrd, t lii agnln tremrn
iluunly, and oon tho whol country wns
under water, Ntnneiunii was dcliijitl by tho
mud mid liuimssablo funis until April !. lly
thnt limit Hooker's Impatience would allow
him to wait no longer, mid bo gavo orders to
iiinvo tho whole nriiiy cavalry, Infantiy and
nil over together. Thin Hloneuian's woik
was Intel ferod with by thti (tiiniimndlng gen
end's haste, for by tho time tho cavaliy
couinmndir wns fall lynl his tusk tho Istttfo
of L'hants'llorsvlllo had Isstii fought and
lost, nml tho Union nlmv wninvtr on tho
left bank of tho Rapimhaniioek at Pnlmotitli
HOOKCfVS INITIAL MOVEMENT.
Hookci 'scamp wns In plain slghtof feo,
who lay on tho heights of Pied.'ilckshurg,
0s)sltt. It would 1st iiitcsscii to move
with tho utmost million, thitefoiv, In order
tuiiilsltad him. One tllvMon of thoAimv
of tho Potoinne (CoiiiIi's) was Hieiefoio left
Inmniput I'almoiith, Thifoeoipawtnthctit
down the liver twenlv miles below Pusb
t'llfUhin guilder lien Htslgwlck to mako n
feint of crossing thorn. This would draw tho
Cnnfmlenito iiimy In Ineieastsl iiuiiiIhts
thither mid mm enl tho main ci-osslng, which
was tiiailo twenly-soven mill's nlsivo Fred
ericksburg, at Kelly's Ponl Four corw under
Oen. HIocuiii went up tho liver to Kelly's
lly referring to tho map tho lender will
notlco whoruthoRiipldaii ilver empties Into
thollnpimhauniM'k. Thollrst iiaiiitsl river Is
vnilously called tho Rapldau, tho Rapid
Anna and tbo Rapid Ann. KHIy's Ford wns
nlsivo tbo mouth of tho Ibipldan Ho that In
order to reach last's nrmy tho Union forco
was obllgtsl to ci oss tw o cold, mw ollen 1 1 ers
Ilrst tho Rappahannock, then the Rapldnn.
They crossed tho ll.-st by sint(M)u bridges.
Tho latter I boy forded, tho men wailing
breast deep In tho water.
Hooker's nrmy passed tho Rnpldan by two
fords. Tho Fifth corps missed nt Ply's foul,
nml tbo Ploventh mid Twelfth eoips "at (ler
iimnln foul, ton uillisnliovosoucoiicrowi, tbo
m my, except Htouenian'H cavalry, set out for
Uliniieollorsvlllo. lly tho evening of April
110, four corps of (Jen. Hooker were at Chun
eollorsvllle, mid ready for light.
Hool.m's chief engineer was Gen (louver-
lur.ir Kemblo War
it'll, n gallant oill.
cer mid a man
M in bis branch of
tho military profes
sion. His skill
nml eoiirngo wore of
groat value during
the four iIiijh' light.
I.. ... 4-.1 II
sVv 0 vllle,esH'ciillydur-
lliir tho disastrous
Oi:V (). K, WAIlHEN.
rout of tho Plov
entl. corns, here
after to lio spoken of. Ooiiverncur ICemblo
Warren wits liorn In New York in 18.'!0, mid
wns gradualist at West Point In 1S"0. Ho war
emplojeil In gov eminent surveying work ic
tho west and south, articiilarly nlong tlu
route of tlio Paclllo lallway, until Will. Ther
for two jcars hu was assistant professor nl
mathematics nt West Point. In 1N11 ho entered
active servk-o, mid from tho Iteglnnlng
till tho end of tbo war ho was in thiA
bartl lights of the in my of tho east. His tal
cuts as tojxirapblnil engineer, n.1 well as
soltller, early attractisl attention, and when
(Jen. Hooker w im r.ilstsl to tho command of
tbo Army of tho Potomac, Wiuren boenmo
ttachlof engineer. During tlio last year of tho
war Oen. Wan-en was In charge at Poters
butg. This bravo and accomplished olllcer
died In 18Vi. Pow of tlioso who took promi
nent mrt in tho oxcltlng scenes from lbtll to
lUtfilmvo lived to Isiold.
Confislenito cavalry, under V. 11. V, ami
FIU Hugh Leo, mid Infantry, under R. 11.
Anderson, had Imsmi Instructed to vvntch tho
upjier foiils of tho Rapimhaniioek, to prevent
tho Federals citxssln; in that dlictlon. On
tho evening of April US wortl was sent to J.
II 11. Btunrt, last's cavalry coinmambir, thut
tho Union soldiers w ei o crossing.
Htuartdlseovurod tho crossing of Hooker's
nrmy tw into to stop ito lu-ogress, He, bow
over, sent W. II. F Iasi nalnst Stonomnu,
and onloretl Flta Hugh Io to keep lutwccn
tho Confederate mnlii nrmy nml tbo advanc
ing Union columns under Hlooum. With
Fitx Luo's brigade, Ktuait himself iiiado n
inpld inarch to u iohit called Ttsld's Tavei u.
Thoro ho lofS tho exhausted bilgnde, mid
rodo otr to Fi-otlei leksburg to tell Gen. R. Ii
Iahi vv bat had hapciictl.
A jvirt of Ooii. Hooker's plan hml been for
certain of Slociitn's divisions to march down
tbo RapiMilmniiock, nftcr crossing, to Hanks'
ford and tal.o jtossesslon of It. This ford
was twelve miles nearer Fredericksburg tho..
tho ford wus where Hisiker's troops but
crossed. Hanks' fonl was defended by
PoMiy'snnd Jlabono's brigades of Anderson's
divisions. Theso bilgmlcs, 8,000 men, fell
ImicIc towanl Chancellorsvlllo on tho nppear
aneo of Hlocum's luwt.
Ucn. William Miihono served bis nntlvo
stnto of Virginia as a United States senator,
Independent in iwlltlcs, f rom lbSl, to March.
iocji. iiu win uuni
Vn., In 1S.T, ami
(rom tlio Virginia
in 1&I7. Ho lc
oor by profession,
nml at various
times In hlsllfohas
Ikmjii hugely inter
ested in railroads.
Ho rose to tho rank
of major genoral
In tbo Confetlernto army. Oen. Mabono la
of small stature ami brilliant intellect.
Oen. Loo bad boon taken by surprise by
Hooker's crossing nt tho upper font. Ho
sharply reprimanded Anderson for not keep
ing a stricter lookout, and wrote to him,
April 20: "I have just received rellublo in
tolllgouco that tho jnoniy has crovcd the
i Ivor in forco. Wliyhavoyou not kejit mo
liiformuU I wish to koo j on at my hwul
quartern at onro."
This dlsimtch was cnpturctl by tbo Union
cavalry. Tbo Union troops preying on more
mid more closely, Anderson's brigade foil
back onco more, from Chaiicellonivlllo to
Taliemaclo Ubiireb, nml Immediately liegan
to fortify that sItlou.
Buoh was tbo situation on tho afternoon of
April :. It was just nt this point that mili
tary critics say Hooker mado n fatal mistake.
Ho should bavu pushtsl on to tho attack that
very ovonlng, while only n iu t of Ander
son's division was near him nml tho lo
enforcomonta Iw was hurtying forwnitl bad
not como up. Hooker bad -411,000 men at
Cbanoellorsvillo, and Slckltu, with 18,000
more, was within easy reach. All thto troojM
wore f retdi and roady for light.
Hut Hookor waltetl till next day to attack,
and all thut night Anderson wus busily forti
fying bis position ut TnWnaclo Church and
Ix was hurry lug forward Ids iv-enforco-incuts,
knowing it to 1st life or death.
FIGHT OF MAY 1.
At 11 o'clock, May 1, Hooker started out to
attack Loo, and by that time Leo wan ready
for hlin. Hooker bad expoctod to movo on
Leo's left flunk, crush hlni ami sitecdily gain
a victory. Ry a o'clock a. m. of May I Leo
had Mclaws and Btonownll Juckson ready
for IsitUii. Jackson's corjn included tbo
divisious of A. P. Hill, Rodes ami Colston.
Hookor uioved forward to attack Loo in
four columns. Tbo troops tliat marched out
VAT mJ lKaTi7
fo attack were Hlocum's and ITownrd's corp''.
HjkiV, IlanctKk's, (Irlllln's, Humphreys' and
Pieiicb's divisions. Ahead of inch column
went n detiu hiiieutnf cavalry.
Military 1 1 Itles again censure Hooker hero
' for his plan of hattle An advancing miny
si'iNitaltsI Into ismv oi glng columns can 1st
Issileu by attacking tliodlUVn nl lines one at
ii time llisikei's army fun ml tho greatest
illlllciilty In iiitsiiiipllxhlng mi) thing, owing
I to tbo ImiHiiii'tiahlo thickets. "It was woixi
man lighting In a
ilenso fog," sajs
If Hisiker had
pushed forward h
slnglo hour longer
on the night of
April ill) ho would
have gnliicd nu
opetmpaw In which
to light his gnnt
bat tie. Rut ho
stopptst just short
of that, ami his
C1KX JOHN W. IIKAIlY.
were cininsI up In a hole In tho thicket about
Tho ronds from Chancellorsvlllo towanl
Frislnlcksbing run slightly north of enst
waid Along theso Hooker' columns movisl,
facing enstw mil, towanl the Rappahannock
mid Fiodorlcksbiiig. On tho map tho situa
tion will bo seen. Ranks' foul was nuuuf
Hooker's objis'tivo points.
Rinvely tho four columns moved out.
Hloeum's column wns on tho light, nml
nearest Piislerlcksburg. Hykes was next,
whllon iurt of Meatlo's corps occupied tlio
left, ami followed what wns calks 1 tho liver
in id, lending to Ranks' foul. French's col
uiim had lnsn sent fin ther south.hothutHil.es'
column was to Isj regarded as tho center. Tho
left mid light advanced sovuial miles along
ineir lorwm-i route without imeting nil
enemy Rut, a mile out from Chancellors.
J vllle, Hykes' cavalry encountered tho Con-
I fislcrntonilvanee. It wasn part of Mahono's
lulgailc, and here tho first gun of tbo Isittlo
of Chancollorsv 1 1 In was llrtsl. 8y kes' cavalry
wasdilvcn lnck to tho main lino.
I Mi kes still pressed on till ho had ndvmicod
two miles mid n half east of Chiuieollorsvlllo.
There ho met Mclvws' mid Amlcrson's Con
feiloiuto divisions and part of Rtxlcs' ill
vision. Tho loads towanl Fmloi loksburg
spread apait here, and Hykcswas In advance
of thonthcr Federal columiiB. There was sumo
sharp lighting, of which Byktjs lsgan to gtt
tho woi-st. 'lho Confislerntcs llnnktsl hfin.
Bykcs then fell ImicIc bobinil HanciK-k's divis
ion, which wns Imintsllutely In his rear.
Hancock iidvanctsl to tho front. lly this
time Blocitin had como up, mid Immediately
foriuisl on tho light. Blooum's right liold a
commanding jtosltlon on high ground, lly
that time, fix), tho Federal left had advanced
till it was In sight of Ranks' foul and the
Rut exactly at this K!nt, with Honcock
mid Hlncum ready for light, and tho loft In
sight of tho tlver, Oen. Hooker, In opposl
Hon to the w Ish of every ono of his genemls,
gavo thoordtr that tho columns should retreat
Imck to tbo positions thoy hud occuplisl 1k
fore setting out. Ho dctei mined to wait List's
attack instead of attacking him, usMimlng
tho defensive instead of tho otrouslve, with
which bo bail set out, thus reversing his
tactics In the faco of tho enemy. He gavo as
tho chief reason for this thnt his nrmy bail to
como in mil low columns through thu foiest
road, whllo lv, with full lino of battle, was
advami.ig In tho clearing to meet him. ''I
wns apprehensive of Ising wlilpis-d In do
tull," said Hooker afterward. Bo night
found tbo Union army back at Chancellors
vlllo. Rut his chief engineer, Oen. O. IC Wmreii,
testllled: "Tho udvnutoges of tho Inltlativo
In u wooded country like tills, olscurIiig nil
mnvements, uieiiicalculuble, nml so far wo
had improved them," Warren also thought
tho ridgo occupied by Uuncook when the
order toiottent wns given, wus a command
Ing jtosltlon for tho oircnslvo. Hut tbo order
to ret rent was given; there was nothing to do
A bilgnilo of Otn. Robert H. Rodes'
Confederate tliv is
lon was among
tlioso that met mid
fought the ndviinc
iug Union columns
on that 1st of May
Oen, Hodcs ills
jiersonally at Chan
cellorsvlllo. Roltert H. Rislcs
was a eltlsrcii of
Alabama whin tho
a nativo of Vir
gluln. Hu wim a
glnla Military Instl- anx' U01)EH.
tuto of tho class of 18-10. In 1801 ho was
profes&or of applied mw hanlcs In that school.
It Is to 1st oliM-rvod that at tho commence
ment of tho war Itoth Rodes ami Btonownll
Jntkson were professors in tbo Virginia Mill,
tary institute. Roth took tbo Hold for tho
Confederacy, both rco to lio distinguished
generals, Itoth took important jv-irt in tho
llcht of Chancellorsvlllo, and Itoth were
killed In battle, Jackson nt Chancellorsvlllo
nud Rules nt Winchester In tho autumn of
1NH. At tho Initio of Clmiiwllorsvlllo
Rodes, still u In igadlur gonornl, roiiimauded
D. 11. Hill's division. It wns Hodcs' dtv islon
that finally broko tbo Union lino at Chancel
lorsville. "It was his gallant charge with
Jiis clnrlon shout: 'Ftfrwanl men I over
friend or foe,' that broko tho onomy's lino."
Jackson saw this gallant charge ami saldi
"Gen. Rodes, j our commission as major gon
ci nl shall dato fi om tho !M of May." A llttlo
while after that Jackson lilmsolf was mor
On tho moi nlng of May 3 tho Union army
occupied around Chancellorsvlllo w lint Oen.
Poublcday ilesci IIksj as "a plain covered by
doiiso thickets," with clearings in front of
tbo few bouses. Boutb of them were tho bills
of Fain low and Hazel Grove. Tbo bitter
wasan important strateglo jtosltlon. Theso
hills toi minuted in a deep ravine. Various
small streams i mining through broken ra
vines lay Itctwcon tho two armicn. As
Hooker and ICo now faced each other,
Hooker wns on tbo west, Leo on tho east.
Tbo ground hold by tbo Confederates was
broken In its surface.
Hooker's lino was now nearly flvo miles
long. Meado on tbo oxtrcmo left, towanl
Fioderiekhbuig, near tho sharp Iwnd in tho
Rajtjiahaiinwk, which will lio seen on tbo
map, and Hownnl on tho right, nenr Chancel
lorsville. Howard's jstsltlou with bis
Kloveutb corts was tbo weak sjxtt In tlio
Union lino. Its light extremity rested "in
f ItA nil- tf It. ...llltrii-v .nd..i.iw.. .l.iif I.. It wita
iirotectc.1 bv no defeuso or ottstuclo against I
inn ajijiroucu in i no enemy irom tlio oimii
itlulns. Hooker sent a brigade, under (lou.
Graham, with u battery, to strengthen How
mil's right, but Gon. Howard sent it Itack
again, saying ho did not ueel it.
(Jen. J. li. 11. Btuartmadoa nsxninalsanco
of tho Union lines during tho latter jtart of
tbo night, ami nt davbreak rodo up to Ieo
and Jnekkonand told them bo bud discovered
n weak jstlnt on tbo oxtrcmo Union tight.
At onco Jackson asked leavo to toko bis
corj, 'JO.OOO strong, inarch in a detour,
through tho woods, so that bo could not lio
seen, mid suddenly attack the Union Kleventli
corps on tbo right.
The front mid Hunks of tho Kleventli corps
were not protected sulllcloutly by either
earth breastworks or fallen timber; Btuart
5dr .Sv -nt; w vm
bad dlscovereil this wi bo thought It would
, lstjsisslblo to nl tack and rout It, Ieo gavo
hi pel mission, ihoiigh to do so lobbed his
mnlii nunv of half Its foico As simhi as
i JackMtn had left, Ist iM.gan n jiu-tensoof nt
tacl.liiglhe Union left mid ivnter In iinler
todiaw nttciitlon uwn.v from the movement
onltsrUht. As ho hud lss'ii on thooveidng
of May I, Hamock wns still somewhat In nib
! ft nee of the main Union lino, mid bis divis
ion of Oen Couch's corps recelv til tho heav
Jackson had cnduivorod to comvnl bis
movement south nml west around the Union
nrmy. He wns sis n, however, its Ids trooits
crossed ii hill tuwanl tho south. What did
it meant Hltliir the Cnnfcdeintes weiuiv
treating soutliuaiil orelso the) were going
.to attack the Kleventli coi its. Accoiillngly
' Hooker sent mi older nildrcMisI to "MiiJ
I (leu. Hlocunt anil .Ma j Gen. ilonanl," dlieet
liigtlicinlo pii'iaii for the jKisslblllty of an
attack on the light Hank. In tho onkr
occurs tin-no wonlsi
"Tlio light of your lino does not npjionr to
1st strong enough No nitlllelnl defense
tt oi tli iiiiiiilug liuvo lss'ii IIiiohii up, mid
there iipNurs to Ik) n scarcity f tiistitsat
I thatjiolnt." '
I Gen Bleklcs went out mid shelled .Tnck
mn's isuiiH nml drove it to nimthor load.
I ThenBlikles askid umlgotloavo to attack
from tho main IknIv. Two divisions wire
i given to him, that or llliuov in thu mhnnco.
it was now jmst nisin of Hatuiihi), May U.
Bleklcs followed on through tho swiiiiiim to
tbo load which Juckson was iiiiiMilug, biilld
lllir lillilires as he went, llci-dait's shin it-
shooters captuiod ndistrgla icglnieiit that
hod hccnluft to glial d tho Conftskiato rear.
Pioiii tho Oioiglaus It was harmsl that
whatever cKo Btonownll Jackson was doing
ho wns not retreating.
Bleklcs wished, niter scjinintlng .Inckson
from the main Confislenito miny, to Inll
njxin the left llnnk of tbo latter, where An
derson's and JleLnws' divisions were, ami
mako n sharj) attack.
Among Union soldiers who distinguished
themselves gallantly at Cliaiicellorsvlllo wiih
Mai Gon Daniel 11 Bleklcs, comiiiamllng
thoTlilulcoiiis. Ho wns ono of tbo few olllcers
high in rank dining thu Into war who had
not received a military tslucatloii. Gen.
Bleklcs wns born In Now Yoikclty In IS'Jl,
mid cnrlv 111 llfo lcmmsl Dm nrlnlni-'n triuli.
Hn afterwanl studied law. and engaged in
jstlltlcnl llfo. He ciitciisl the Union m my at
lho Iteglnnlng of lho war. When tho war
closed Gen. Bleklcs had left a leg iijsjii thu
Imttlollold. Ho was long minister to Bjiain
lifter tbo war, mid man led nBMiilsh lady.
On tbo Held of May L', at Cliaiicellorsvlllo,
Oen. Pleasouton was sent forward with his
cavalry to ovei tako Jackson with his Con
federate coijw, wlillo Bleklcs tmried to at
tack McIjiiw mid Andeison on Uv's left
llnnk. Hut Hooker declined to allow him to
iiltiick, mid so BlukW cents watted, doing
I'Kasonton nttomptcil to pursue Jackson,
but found be could nutko no jtrogress through
tho thickets. Ho cnino back noeonllngly,
ami took position on tbo cleVatlon known as
Hazel Grove, lieforo mentloiiisl. Ho bad,
meantime, sent jinrt of his cavalry to Bleklcs.
ELEVENTH CORPS ROUTED.
As ho returned to lintel Grove, be says bo
heanl "sjmttering shots going more nml
more to tho noithwest," lly tho time lio
climlKsl the hill at Hael Giovo ho saw tho
"Kleventli corjts In full lllght, iianlestilckcu
Iteyoud dcsciljition." Thoy were rushing
madly Into a Hnntiqi to the rear of Hazel
Grove, horses, cattle, men, mules and wagons
all together. "When tho light was over tbo
plloof dibils wns mnnyfeet high," writes
Gen. Pleasouton in Tlio Century.
MaJ. Piter Keetian was nt Hazel Grove
with tho eighth Pennsylvania cavalry.
A moment Oen. Pleasouton (mused for
thought; then ho oulored MnJ Kecnan to
chnrgolnto tho woods with Ills single regi
ment mid hold Jnckson's whole victorious
eorps in ehtsk till ho blm-elf should lio
nblo to (ilnco sonio nrtlllcry. Plcnsonton
had with him nt Hnzel Onivotwo cavalry
regiments, nlready In saddle, and u bat
tery of borso nitlllery. The hcioie Keo
nan gavo a glance nt tho prosjiect lieforo him.
Ho, with a single regiment, was to hold lu
check nvlctoi ions pursuing nuuy of 211,000.
HoRinllisl sadly, realizing that tho task was
almost certain death. Then ho said s "(Jen
enil, I will do It," mid moved off without a
Ho never enmo Imck ngnln. A largo jiro
jtoitlonof that heroic icglment, their coir
iiiander among them, lay dead In the bloody
tblckits of Chancelloisvillo n few mlnutis
Rut his biiof work had boon of inestimable
worth. During tho few moments that occu
plisl tho Confederates In mow lug down tbo
Klghth Pennsylvania cnvnlry, Plcuson'oii
had been nblo to get twenty-two guns, double
loaded with canister, into (xisitiou.
On enmo thi-Coiifoderntes llkontldnl wave
of destruction. They were flying a United
Jstatcs ling, and Pleasouton wns nt first un
certain whether thoy were friends or ene
mies. Ho s.ild to MnJ. Thomson, of his stall:
"Rldoout there and sou who those icople
Thomson did so, hesitatingly, "Como on,
we're ft lends!" thoy cried. It was too dark
to distinguish tho uniforms, when ull at onco
there burst from tbo advancing lino tlio well
known torrillc "rebel yell" thnt distinguished
Jackson's corjw, and they charged up hill to
ward tho Union gnus. Pleusouton found out
who "those jkhijiIo'' were.
Meantime, whllo delaying Sickles attack on
Loo's left, General
Hrlg. Gens. Geary
and Williams to
attack tbo Confed
erates on tbo front,
to make nu Impres
sion on tho plank
road, leading from
Fred or leksburg,
but fulled to do so,
mid rot u rued.
Geary had, bow
ev er, enough of
lighting on tho
next ilny, the !!d.
MAJ. rUTKIl KEE.VAf.
lieforo tho battle of Chancollorsvillo was over.
John W Ocaiy waslstrn lu Pennsjhania
in RWO. Ho had an adventurous life. First
bo served in tho Mexican wnr, wus wounded,
mid was tlio llrst military commander of tbo
City of Mexico after Its capture. Then lio
wonttoCalllornla, and wus tbo first mayor
of Ban FrnucNco. In WW bo Ixvanio terri
torial governor of Kansas. Knterilig tlio
Union nrmy lu 1801, bo ls-camo a brigadier
general. Ho fought all through tho war. and
bocuuio military governor of Bavanuali on
Its capture by Bhormun. After tho winy
truo to bis fate, ho wns elected governor of
Poimsy lviinln. This was lu 1S07. Ho was
re-elected. In lbTII, while still serving as
governor, Gen. Geary died suddenly.
Jackson's scouts had crejtt tlirouglL tho
thickets that fatal 'Jd of May, w Ithlu sight or
Howard's Kleventli corps on the Union right.
Thoy reported tho soldiers' guns stacked, ami
oflleersand nieii phi) ing cauls ami otherwise
amusing themselves, thinking of anything
but n surpiiso and attack. Now wns tho
time for Jackson to strike. Cnutioiuly ad
vancing Ids men in three lines, Rislos first,
Colston second, A. P. Hill third, lio mado tho
Uttering their famous yell, Stonowall
Jackson's linn dashed ngnhut tho Union
right with ull tholr force. It was a complete
surprise to tho Kleventli coi ps.
Tbo rest can lsj told In n few words. Tbo
Union troop were attacked lu tint think and
roar, mid lied In the wildest coufudoii, (tell
mell, heifer skelter, leitvlng all Itehlud them.
A lino of their works faced toward Jackson's
men. It did not stop tho victors. Taking
possession of this, tho Confislenito hurried
on, on nfter the lllng Union men. Chan
cellorsvllle, the Union hcudiiunitcrs. was
i only half a mllouwa). Jackson declared If
lie imil only lialt ml hour more of d i light ho
could huvo taken thnt too.
It wns at this time that tidings of the mad
lllght of tho Kiev entb coi ps renibed Pienron
ton nt Hazel liiovejulso Bleklcs, waiting
Idly on I-o's left
Pleasouton iluckml tho ndv am e of Jack
ton teiiijNiinril b iiiluidly blnzo front tho
lwent two double shotted guns.
And now Oen Histkir at Chancelloisvillo
becnino aware of tho rout. He had with
him only Gen. Ill
I am O Renj's di
vision of Bleklcs'
coi (is. Ho iiishid
this one division
bavotiits to stop
s drlvo them back
i Crvr'MVri ri"l retako tbo
MkWti&$L K""""1 ' i:,cv-
s&Wj?&ZV ' C,,y C0""1
hoi. no mis, ins
division, how over,
nml llin tlnrt-fmea
OEN. IIIIUU (I. HEIUIY. t0Klthr nt kIIRth
ttojiixsl the pursuit, but I low .nil's (tosltion
vns in the hands of Jnckson's men
Hooker's stall' nnd tbo fow cnvnlry with
him tried In vain to stop the Kleventli. It Is
said soiii'Mif thoIl.vliig men were even shot
tlownbj Hooker's stair lu this attempt, but
Gen. Retry kept tip a Ilcrco tire of shot nnd
shell lu tho wimsIs. Next day, Mny.'l, whllo
executing another berolo task, he was shot
Hlrnm George Rerry, tw, had nu advent
urous lire Iloin in Mnino in 1'JI, ho lte
cnini) Hint a cm penter, then n snilor, next en
tering Into isilitics in his nntlvo state. Ho
wns a colom 1 of a Maine regiment at tho bat
tle of llrst Hull Run. He wns mado a brig
adier general in May, lsiL' Piom tho tlmo
the war liegan until his Inmeiited death at
Chnncellorsvllle, May :i, lNll, Gen Rerry
wns in active service with the nrmy of the
Potomac, distinguishing himself often.
DEATH OF STONEWALL JACKSON.
Tho ilerco shot ft om Horry's division rattled
'through tho thickets. Occasionally n sparkle
overhead alstve tho trees showed when n
shell was exploded. Rut tho Confederates
advanced no fuither. It becamo too dark
to light. There was a (unso in tbo combat.
Jackson was a hot lighter nlwojs. The
divisions of Rodes nml Colston, who bad
mado tho llrst attack and jtursiilt, hnd be
come confused mid entangled In tho woods.
Jackson ordered A. 1) Hill's divisions to
como forwnnl from the rear und pyrsuo with
out a moment's delay.
Jackson himself rodo forward In tho moon
light toilet reconnolter tho jtosltlon. Ho
went out Iwvond his own (ilcket line. Dur
ing Ills nltsenco tlio pickets were changed
Finishing his lnstectfon, tho genernl turned
his horse's bend towanl his own linos. Tho
Confederate pickets mistook him nnd his
itiitr for Plcasontnu's cuv airy. They jioui ed
volley of muskitry into the advancing
Tho v olloy killed or wounded tienrly every
man of tlio escort. Roth of Jackson's arms
n 1 iv shattered
"All inv wounds are by my own men," ho
Hewn placed niton a litter, and Itonio to
nurd tho rear. Hut tho torilblo (lio from
Berry and licnsonton's guusmkisl thowoods
mil tho litter was struck, and one of the
Jackson fell from tho shoulders of bis men,
rrcelv lug additional but t Ho lingered somfi
iluys, having un nnn ainjmtated. Sunday,
May 10, hu died.
Tho advance of Jnckson's men, May 3, to
tho ground lecently occujiieil by Ilonanl,
bad quito cut oir Sickles' corjis from tho main
liody of the Union army. As soon as Hooker
wasawmoof Jackson s coming lio had or
densl'Blckles to nttack his right Hank.
Tlio plunk road, which njijieara In tho ecu
trnl juii t of tho mai, leading from Clmncol
lorsvillo to l'redericksburg, was tho mosi
hotly contested jtoiut on May .i. Sickles de
termined to retake this from Jackson mid re
join tbo main Union army.
This lio really accomplished. Ho mado n
brllllunt midnight attack and bayonet
charge, and retook much of tho ground lost
in tho aftci noon.
Tho Pi ret corjts (Reynolds') ui) to this tlmo
had taken no part in tho fight. Thoy were
nt United States fonl, on tbo Rap(tahannoek,
four miles north of Clmncollorsvillo, Gen.
Doublcday tomjtorm lly in clmrgo of the
corjvs. Word vv as sent them late in tbo ov on
Ing to como w Ith all speed to tho sceno of no
tion. Douhlcdny oled at onco. As they
approached Chaiicillorsvillo thoy heard the
roar of Bleklcs' midnight battle. At once
they filed to the light in lino, singing "John
Drown" with a roar that made tho dark
w owls 1 lug again. It hnd mi Inspiring elfect
on tho disheartened Union nrmy
In the Chnucollorsv Illo fighting of May 3
Maj. Gen. Ainlel W. Whljmlo was mortally
woiimleil 110 wns
hoi 11 in Massachu
setts, 1K.7, and was
graduated nt West
Point in 1847. Ho
served ill the
United Rtntes engi
neer coijm till 1NU.
Then thu command
of a brigade was
given to hi in.
While tho Union
army was on tho
Rap (tab a 11 11 it ok
tho Third divis
ion of tbo Thlul
corps. After being wounded tbo third day
of tho Cliaiicellorsvlllo fighting Gen. Whipple
was taken to Washington. There, May ll, lie
was unpointed major general of volunteer,
?J ,'. . ",y 7' ,,nvet inujor general of tlio
Un toil Stutes army "for gullant mid meri
torious services," and on May 7 ho died.
FIGHT OF SUNDAY, MAY 3.
That night Hookor laid his jilans for tbo
battle of Hay U. He sent word to Sedgwick.
who, w Ith hi corjts, hnd gono down tho rlrof
below Prederleksbuig, nnd crossed it, to
como up mid uttiick Leo In the ivar, whllo
Hooker hlmvlf uttiickeil lu limit
All nlglit Gen. Ph nsontoii had lioen fortN
fying tlio hill Hazel Uiove, know Ing It to ho
on iiiiM)itnut jMHitloii, but H'Kiker dln-ctcd
him to abandon it and fnll Itack Into tbo now
lino of bnttlo ho bad oiilinsl Sickles to follll.
Bo this iiiisiitaiit point wns lust The l'.lov
tilth istr(.s wns suit to the extreme left,
where Minde was, to Ik lefoinitsl.
Roth Jutksoii mid A. P. Hill had lieen
wounded on the evening of Mny S. Tlio
command 1 f Jw'smiii's coijis wns given to J,
K, R htuait. Ihe i-avulrv l-iihihI
At duvbicnk, May it, Btiiait lsgan tho nt
tack 011 Sickles in wllne. 'IheCoiifislcrntert
Stcedly tisik tssRsloii of Hazel Giovo, mid
isiimsl a demll lire Into the I'nioii lines.
Sickles sent nu ingent icntiest to Hooker for
JUiMtit Rut IIiMikerhaillKx'ii hint In his
bead b the conclusion f u t)n miking a
column against whlih he Untied, mid wn
ilaeil mid senseless There wns 110 hi nil to
see that Blekli-s' aiis-iil was gialitisl, al
though the 1 orps or .Meade mid Re nolds nnd
the loorgmilzoil one of Unwind were Ring
Idle on the lift. Tho Union nimyliail no
coniinaiiiler Only for this, it seems likely
that Chnneollorsvillu nilglit nftir all have
been a Union victory.
(k'li Sickles fought till his ninmiiiiltloii
gnv e out At that moment French's dlv Islon
fell niton Stunt ts eorps and caused it to ro
Meantime the Confederate Oen. Anderson
nml McUiwaweiv making n ileico light on
tho Union center, under Slocuin. Lee en
deavored nil tho whlleto veigo tothelcftnlld
loin BtuaiL Bloc urn, French and Blckh slay
VtVu.' T Ur fo"Rl the battle that day.
Sickles' men iotlght de(Nlntelv. They 10
Jiulsisl flvo (.'oiifeilei ate charges, holding their
ljlio onlv with the lnioivt nt tho Inst. '1 hen
blekles fell back ton now line.
Such was the situation nt Chancellorsvlllo,
when word liathcd Leo of
nooker had ordered Sedgwick to cross tbo
RnpiKihnituock threo miles below Frwlerlcks
burg. Ho was already aci oss, hen, on tho
night of Mny 'J, be received Hookei's onler to
"cioss the Rnpiinhutinock" and follow tbo
ChnncelloiRvillo road till ho connected with
Hooker. Ho was to destroy any foico that
canto in his way. Hooker bad forgotten thnt
Sedgwiik wns nlrendy neross and on tho
south side of the Rappahannock. Hooker had
forgotten his llrst older to Sedgwick.
At da break, May !), SeMgwIck 1 cached
Fredericksburg. IJirly had lusjn left with
bis division to prottct Frederleksbutg. Ho
occuplisl tho heights 011 tho right. Mnryo's
Hill, where such fearful scenes had been en
nctod in Doeomlter, was lu the center.
Sedgwick stormed Mnryo's Hill and took
it. It Wns defended bv nhlltrnilnllliili.rrtnrln:.
dale. Cols. Spear and Johns led tho Union
assaulting columns. SjH-ar was killed and
Johns was twice wounded, but tho hill wax
taken. Fiedcilcksluug was captured, and
Karly retreated along the jilank road toward
Leo and Chancollorsv illo.
The attack on tho fortified heights of
Frederieksbuig was plutinod by Gen. John
Now ton, n division commander of tho Sixth
coips. ucn. acniaii wus uoru 111 Vliglnla,
hiiii wus gniuuatcti
second In his class
at AVest Point In
113. Ho entered
tho engineer eorps
of tlio mllltarv
service Ho distin
guished hi ins
iliirim: tho c
war. After Its close ",
ho was employed
011 bnrltor and for
tification work. Ho
is known to fame
ns the engineer who oe:.'. joii.n Nr.WTO.v.
blew up the obstruction known us Hell Onto,
in Long Island sound.
Gen. Gibbon wns left behind, nt Freder
icksburg, nnd Sedgwick pushed on after
Lnt ly dim 11 tho plunk loud. Kmly's foico
whipped, U-o's destruction vvnM coi tain. Leo
liennl of tlie coming of K irly nml N-iit out part
of Mi-Laws' and Anderson's men to meet
him mid iniiku n stntid Tho two foiees
joined nt Salem chinch, halt vvuv between
lTcderickshurg and Chnncellotsvllle. Thou
darkness fell und there v. us no more fighting
Siindny, Mny !i.
Dawn of the fouithnnd Inst day of tho
fighting nt Chancel lorsv Illo luoko. Hookor's
headtroubhd hlin nil tho nfternoon of May
.'land nil May I so greatly (hat It is not fair
to bold him resjHtuslblo for nil that hap
jtenisl. At times ho scarcely know w hat ho
was about. AH day of tho -ith, although ho
had resumed command, bis onler were con
tradictory und vacillating, now telling Sedg
wick to bold his ground and now to let lent
back across tho liver. Kuily in tlio moiiilng
tin fllr..itiwl liim imt-I., iitt.w.l- .1... r.-...r...in..
....-,.. ww ,, ... .-. V WUllllAllIi -
ntesat Bnleiiiihunh, hut to assume tho do-
H.-11-MU. an .my uierii vtns SKirilllsliing be
tween Scdgw li k and Knrly nml tho brigaiUs
that had re-cnlorcod him. At (I o'clock In
tho evening tlio Confcileratogencials, Ander
son nml Lnrly, 111111I0 a furious attack on
Sedgwick's lett, under Gen. Howe. Howe
retreated to a strong (.osltlon in tho direc
tion of IliltlLO fnlil III11I 11ml-.. i.t.Ltn.1 ...!
.... .......... " ......... .uv.v .-..n.v.. .nil.
iji-ni, iiiicK 1110 toniiucintcs.
Dining the night of May 4 Sedgwick re
ctossed the Raiipahanuocl: with Ins wliolo
force. Hooker had oulered bini lo cross,
then countermanded tho onler, but the latter
command was not iceilved till nftcr tho
crossing wns eiroitod Uo Immedlntoly io
occujtltsi Piederli ksbuig
During tho nLditof May 4 Hooker hold a
council of war with Ids coi (is commanders,
who were sleep and exhnustisl Ho resolved
to cross baik to his old hcudqimi tors on tho
left bunk of the Hupituhnnnook.
On Muv i List's nimy, nil told, numbered
no mote than ftO.UOO men. Hooki r, Including
Sedgw iek's 101 (is, hud NI.OOO An tune dur
ing thut da 11 tlctei mined attack against
Btuai t, who, with Jackson's old coi jts, fronted
Hooker ut Clinneelloniville, or iigniiist Mc
Ijows, who, with Karl , fronted Sedgwick on
the cast, could have resulted in 11 Union
victory, mid List could huvo lieen wIiIjiiksI in
detail. Hut no such attack wns made.
Tuesduy, Mny ft, n gieat ruin stonn nroso
In tho ntteinoon Under Its cover tho grout
Union nun (kismhI back over the swollen
Riipjiahiiimnek to its old quarters. Wednes
day morning, .Ma (I, Gen. U-o looked about
him for his cneinv , and found none there.
In thobattlisof Chnneollorsv illo the Union
m my lost 17,107, tho Confederates I.'J.IJW.
It only lemalns to notothoeveiitsof Stono
man's Raid. After crossing tho Rappuhau.
nock, bo illvldtsl bis tavaliy Into two col
limits. Ono, under Averill, l,(K)0 strong, went
to Rajildan Station, on tho Oiango inllroad,
had a luief entounUT with W II P. Leo,
and returned to tlio main at my Hooker
himself sent Averill the onler to 1 itui 11
Btoucmau himself, with ills main column,
moved south and westwaul to destroy tho
Virginia control luiliood. Ho readied
l)iilca Couit House, May 'J. He soir out
milling jmii ties III viil lous dli cctlons Thole
was a light wlrii one of W. II. F Lio's regi
ments near Goiiioiisvillo. This regiment
wnsdilveii back It tho arrival of Union ro
enforcomeutH A patty, under Col. Wyndbain, attacked
thu canal at Columbia. A thlul, umhrKll
(nit lick, dashed across country ami cnnio
within two miles of lllchiiioiid, lie de
stroyed In Idgi und a portion of tho Fred
ericksburg 1 nib oad. Then he turned mid
went to Gloucester Point. Other detach
ineiits, under Col. Davis and Gen. Glegg, did
considerable duiimgo to railroads at v arlous
"A.8!0"1'"!"" rccrossed tbo Rappahan
nock at Kelly's Foul. June 3, tho cavalry
from Gloucester Point, under Kilpatrlek,
also 1 cached headquarters, bringing lu
among otlwr sjiolls of war, 1,000 freed slave,
lu thos)das culled con trnbamU.
eif Am"B terms'
ivii yi.uwjsf Si;
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