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About Capital city courier. (Lincoln, Neb.) 1885-1893 | View Entire Issue (Jan. 21, 1888)
AT STONE RIVER.
Twonty-llfth Anniversary of
PHIL. SHERIDAN'S DIVISION
His Bravo Brigado Oonimnndors
Woro All Killed.
The Story of Hutimi IijV I'lnlitlng Tn
striirtlvo Military Htnttrgf-Oti llolli
Bides Tlicy l'might Mhn llrnvn Mm,
Im)ii(T mid Wrll-llin 'Itiiiiml Forest."
I'nrtrnlt of DlntliiaulitiFit (IMccr.
"Old ItosyV Victory It Lost Ken
tucky to Ilia Confederates- Ilrnim's
t Copyrighted by tho American l'rt m Assoclnt Inii.J
Christinas night. Ib03, Col. (J. W. Ilolcrlj,
of llin lrty .second Illlnolii n-lmcnt, ono of
the unsung heroes nf tho Anny of t lio Cumber
land, gavo n dinner to n fow lni her officer.
Ho commanded tho Thlnl bi Igndo In (Jen.
Blioi Idnn's division. Ho lmd been doing
gnrrlson duty nt Nnshvlllo, tmt hnd naked to
bo sent where fighting wns to lie.
His ropiest wns granted, and ho wns or
dered to Join the bilgndes moving to meet
Brngg lit Murfrvesboro. It wns it tlmo of
liuriyingnnd n piimtlon. Tlio only Chi lat
um soldiers nf either army had wns that
which they passed In thoughts linked with tlio
loved ones nt homo.
However, Col. Rolierts nnd hit fi lends
mndo tlio la-st of It, They "played," as tho
children do, Hint It was a men y occasion;
that their soldier's fnto wns a fenst, nnd thnt
all nrouml them wan llRht nndwuimtli nnd
Joy. Among thhso pi event wore Col. liar
rliiRtou and Lieut. Col. Tulllnforro.
Col. Roberts w in a ni'iu of eoininniidhiR pres
ence, n giant In strength nnd statute Ho had
distinguished himself already for his dashing
bravery anil slew,
nnd tho future was
an bright beforo
him n thnt of nny
man In tho United
States service that
At tho closo lit
tho frugal feast
,. "Col. IlobcrU roso,
ii tall nnd splendid
lisa. in hit strength,
' nnd proposed a
r vw toast to tho suo-
COI. noiiKnTfl. cess of tho Union
arm. All know n battlo could not bo long
delayed. Col. Rolierts mmlo a llttlo speech
thot thrilled lila fow hearer. Ho sKko of
tho light which ho waited for llko Job's war
horse. As ho raised his glass ho closed hi
(perch with theso words:
"I, for one, will tako all chances of robel
"So will II" "And II" cried Harrington
and Tnlllnferro, as thov too brought their
glasses to their His. Tho toast to ictory
was drunk with cheer mid enthusiasm.
A week afteiward, Jan. I, INVi. nil thrco
Robot U, llaiiliiRton nnd Tallliiferro lay
dead upon tho bnUlellcld of Stono river.
Oct. 4, 1603, Oen. William a Rosocrnns had
Won tho lwttlo of Corinth, MIm. Tho Fed
trnl nrmy under Huoll hml, meantime, been
tramping up and down Kentucky, f rultlcssly
pursuing HraRR nud letting liltn vscaiH) at
last. After tho lmttlo of rorryvllle, Ky.,
Oct 8, ISO), Buell was relloveil from com
Bland and Ouu. Uosocrans wasiuinmoned to
Uko his place at tho hood ot tho Union army
In Kentucky. Tho day that ho was thus
summoned (Oct. 25) bo had Just Issued to his
troops a dispatch congratulating them on
their bravery and onduranco nt tho fight of
Tho two leading genet all nt this tlmo In
tho west weroOraut nnd Rosocrnns. Grunt
ooramanded tho Thlitevuth army corps,
known as tho Army of the Tennessee. To
Rosecrans was given tho leadership of tho
Army of tho Cumberland. Ills district com
prised northern Georgia and Ahibaum an
rnneaoo cust of tho Tonnc&seo river.
Rosecraus was nothing It not energetic
Oct. 80 he was at Loulsvlllo. Tho Federal
army had been ordered to Bowling Green,
Ky., nftcr Terryvillo, Ry Nov. I its ad
vanco had reached tliere. Nov, 9 Gen. Rose
grans arrived In person to tako com uiaiidot It,
William Starko Rosocrans was an Ohio
Kan, born in 1610. He was graduated at
West Point in 1843,
and autcred tho en
lineors coni to
which tho most
Ho was assistant
frofessor at West
Olnt after his
M.lli tlnn T . VTlHBPiA i
1851 he resigned j
from tho ar.uy Ixv
cause of ill health.
At the beginning
ef tho civil war,
bowover, he en
tered tho scrvlco
again, was inndj n brigadier general of the
regular anny In May, 1801, and sent to West
Virginia. There ho made an enviablo record
(or himself. In 1603 he went south, nnd In
October won tho battles of Iuka nud Corinth.
That year ho becnmo major general of volun
teers. In December ho fought nnd won Uie
battle ot Stono Rirer. His career wns almost
an uninterrupted success up to September,
1803, when ho lost tho battle of Chlckamauga.
Ue was thereupon relieved of the command
ot tho Army ot tho Cumberland. In 1804 he
commanded tho department of Missoutl, and
rendered clllclcnt service in defeating 1'rlco.
In 1807 ho resigned from tho army. After
wards he was minister to Mexico for a short
On assuming his new command Oen. Roso
crnns reorganized his army. Ho divided It
into n right wing, center and left wing, com
manded respectively by Gens, A. McD. Mo
Cook, Gcorgo II. Thomas and T. L. Critten
den. Buell had left Negley and Palmer at Nosh
sllle with two divisions. Bragg, on march
ing Into Kentucky in tho summer of '03, left
in Tennessee n forco of 10,0v0 men under Gen.
John C. Brcckinrldgo to "blockade Nash
vlllo,'' He did so, and for six weeks Negley's
and Palmer's men in Nashvlllo hod no com
munication with tho north.
After leaving Kentucky In October Bragg
began concentrating lib forces at Murfrccs-
boro, lightly judging that u Federal attempt
would to made to relievo Nashvlllo. A third
of Brvckinridgo'ii forco was cavalry, com
mniulod' by N. B. Foi rent and Joseph
Wheeler, and theso had harassed tho garrl
aou nt Nashvlllo pot a llttlo during tho six
weoU' fcljge, preventing them from gathering
supplies from tho surrounding country ex
cept by raiding parties. It was just In this
element of cavalry that Biagg's army was
superior to BucllV, and the Union force had
suffered accordingly, As soon as Roavcraiui
i i 'Hil' iC-
wn'i'in In command ho nt onco demanded
thai Mils defect should l0 remedied.
During tho siege a Ixxly of Confederate
tio.i lufnutiy nnd eavnlry, H,(XX) strong,
imh i Gens, Roger Hanson and N. It. For-
trt rniin HreekluililRo's couitnaud, ip
pt-iiMl iV'foio Nnnhvlllo wllli tlio Intention of
iimMimii ueiiirnl battle. Hut Jtntns thsy
iiim iiIhmiI to attack nil order en mo from
UliitfH for them to ilenWt nt onee. Thor
iillhly ntiROivd, rinet oliejed. This was
Nov. 17 tho ndvancu of Hoveinns' nriny,
wllli tho ooiuniiiudor-ln-elilef li(tnelf, renrlieil
Nnhvllle, mitl linmedlnto pnnHVtMof cn
turliiR It fiom tho Union foive iviinoiI. lloso
crntta nititlilWietl III henihiuai ters In Niulf
IlOMcram lmuullately leRaii to put In or
der tho tallrond fiom LmiUvlIKi to Nashville.
It was completed Nov. SM, and thereafter
trnlns iiiiiiiIiir leRiilarly over It kept tho
Fcdornl m my In nnch nf (tipplles. To Kunrd
It from Confederal attack lien. Thomas was
stationed Willi his dlvUIon at (Itillatlu.
So In Deetimlicr, 18(W, llrnRR'sand Itoo
craus' nrnilw lay watchlnj; each other, llrngg
nt Murfnvsboro, IloNCcriiiii nt Naslivlllo.
Qeu. John M. I'nlmerwnsn bravonnd pop
ular offlivr, coinnmndliiB tlio Hwond dl Islon
III lloneci mis' loll
wni Iwin In Ken
tucky In 1817, but
when n youth ml
grated to Illinois,
like Abraham Lin
coln, nnd, llkolilm,
liecnnto n lawyer.
t t.. a..ii isai
j 111 'HI "'!
L laiiucr uevaiiiu
Vooloitol ot the
(iRtf 1'Almkiu went to MlMourl
under Oen Fretiinnt; lecnmo n brlRmllor
Rcneinl In DeeemW, 18(11, nnd nxulsled nt
tho mptum nf NowMmlrld ami Islnml No. 10.
Ho commanded n tllvlslou under Ixith Ornnt
nud IlorHH.'rnuit nnd boi o Htieh Riitlntit pm t in
tho battlo of Htono Ulver that ho wasnro
J moled to major general. Ho wnsnt tho bnttlo
of ClilckumniiRa nud commanded tho Vow-
teenth cor during tho AtliiiiiiicnmpiilRii.
Of tho twonruilcrt IjIiir; at MiiifntwlHiro
nud NnshWIlo Hiiiri; lmd (V),tHX) men, ono
thlnl of It cavalry: Itoseernns 1.1,000, very
llttlo cnvnlry. Uhllo thov thus wnlted nil
nlTnlr oeetiiivd Dec. 7 wlilcli confenvd no
luster on tho l'Ydeinl nrins. At Hm Isvlllo, n
fow mllei east of Niishvlllo, Col. A. 11, Mdoro
lintl been KVitid to cuanl a foiil over tho
Cumberland i Iver. liarly on tho njot itlui; of
Dcc.7 John Morgnu nnd his men nppenred
beforo tho town without warning nud nt
tncked It. His nppixNich wns usurp) In to
tho Federal camp. Thci-o was shin li lighting
for an hour, when Moore nnd his w liolo com
mnud wem captured, with tho loss of 1W men.
For this exploit John Morgan was miulon
Doc. SM, Mni-Rnn ami nil his men. 1.000
stinng, wrnxilT iiRnlu for Kentucky. Ho h:id
onlcrsfnim Hi iiitk to destroy tho Loulsvlllo
nnd Nashvlllo inilmnd In HosecrnuV itiic and
break his eonimuulcutloiis uoitli. At tho
saino tlmo HniRKKMit Fonttnn a in Id elt.o
where. And t ilswasoxnctlvtho tlmo chosen
liy Koseciiins. with full knowledge of tho
sltuntlon. to attack lltiifir ItlniH-lf at Mur-
fivesiKim. iirmrc's cnvniiy absent, moir two
nrnilo, his own and B.ngg, would bo more
NASHVILLE TO MURFREESBORO.
Dec. SM, Gen. Thomas moved from his
hi'iuiquiti tew ot Gallatin nud joined tho main
army at Nashville Ho took with him two
divisions, Rousseau's nnd Negley', nud ono
brlgnde, Gen. Sjieed 8. Fry's.
James S. Negley was born in Pennsylvania
In 1&.H). Ho was not u graduate of West
Point A considerable proportion of w estern
nrmy officers wero
imt L'milnntixi of
tho United States
Nog loy, bowover,
served In tho Mexi
can war. In 1601
bo recruited n bri
gade ot volunteers
In thrco days, and
lecamo their com
mander. Ho called
- .,,......... . . .
public ntteutlou to
tho fact that arms
wero buliitf ro-
inoveil from tho
United States arsenal at Allegheny, Pa., for
Confederal use, then joined tho western
army with his brigade. Ho defended Nash
vlllo In connection with Palmer in tho sum
mer of 1603, and along with that general wns
promoted to bo n major general Jov gallantry
at Btono River, Ho afterwards served in
Georgia and Alabama.
On Christmas might, 1803, Rosecrans sent
around among his commatulers tho wonl to
march southwnrd. Singularly enough, nt
that very time, Brngg wns planning an at
tack against Rosocrnns at Nnshvillo.
Dec 20, 1603, Rosocrnns began his march
against Bragg and Murfrcesboro. Tho fight,
which began there Dec 81, Is Indiscriminate
ly called tho battlo of Stono River mid Mur
frcesboro, It U also spoken of ns Stouo's
Bragg' nrmy consisted of threo corps.
Hardee's corps was west of Murfreesboro;
Polk's and Klrby Smith's corps wcro at Mur
When Rosecrans' nrmy moved forward,
McCook's coiw, tho right wing, advanced on
the Nollusvillo pike toward Triuuo against
A glanco at the map will reveal Rosecrans'
plan of campaign. Imagine threo lines
stretching southward and slightly to tho oast
from Nashville, Thej were tho respective
corps.of McCook, Thomas and T, L. Critten
den, tho right wing, center and left wing ot
Rosecrans' nrmy. McCook was on tho west,
Crittenden on tho east. Thomas in the center.
They did not leave Nashvlllo In that order,
but as they converged toward Mmfrcesboro
they fell into position for tlio fight
Btono river Is a streom which flows In a
northwesterly direction Into tho Cumber-
inn.i rw ,iiI1mi ivo Nnshviiift TtAwntt
land, a few miles otwvo Muuyiiie. its west
fork pas Murfreesboro, and flows In tho
wmo genet al direction as tho iiialu stream.
Near tho "West Fork," as it Is called, tho
battlo was fought. Hardee's Confederate
winu n't.nlmmi ,liiArr MnrfiMvlnmnt
'. T. - , . Z.:
Uie tlmo Hcwok urt wtuvvant yo-
i. i in "ru. m "
Bragg learned tlio samo day, Dec. 20, of
Rosecrans' advance, and prepared for fight.
He selected Stone river as his Hue of battle
Thon bo directed such cavalry ns ho had left
Pegram's, Wheclei's and Wharton's to
annoy and delay tho head ot tho advancing
Union columns until ho should be ready.
The railroad from Nashville to Chatta
nooga ixibcs through Mui f rceslmro, and the
town Is thirty miles from Nnshvlllc Dense,
almost Impenetrable collar groves rendered
sK,J V. KJ
wSijlSfvSki flHffiii s
CAvatryand artillery oprrntlons exeeodlngly
Bragg' plan of battlo was very similar to
that nf Rwcrans. His left wing, under
Hardee, wns uu tho west, npixwlto McCook's"
nppi (inching corps, His center, under Folk,
ho kept at Murfrcesltoro. His light wing,
Ulliler (leu McCowu, ho stationed nt Rcnds
vlllo, enut of Mmfieesboro. In dlnxHng his
troops for battle, MtCown's divKliui was
Kstel In tho ivn r of tho others as n reserve.
Menntlmo thu Confidci nUi cavalry ot
Wheeler and Wliniton lmd iimjdy fulfilled
Instructions and gieatly aminyed Rosecrans'
Btlvnitee. Ho wiltl It wns Imiieded by ''clouds
of hoi somen." Mcl'ook was sldi mlshlng with
thcHo elmuls of lionn'iinii nil day Dec. S.U Ho
reached Nollusvillo that night, howowr.
Wheelei's cavalry was such n thorn In tho
llrah to Htiolra nnd
In tho west ns J. H.
m, trvnt from Ken
tucky no was
I'esjK'Clnlly success- ,
fill In destroying '
nud o ui till' I nt?
Union supply ,
wttlia Ct rtlllltn, I
OEN. JOHKI'll WUKKt.RlU """" w-"
theso rnlds ho cap- '
tu red soveral iiiIIIIoiih' worth of property. '
Joseph Wheeler was born In Georgia In
laid, gi initiated nt West Point In 1S1D, nnd
becniiio lieutenant of cavalry. Tr.o jears
later, 1801, ho resigned his commission In tho
United Ktntes ai my, and cast his fortunes
with tho Confedciaoy Ho was rapidly pro
moted, nnd commanded nil Infantry In Ignde i
at Slilloh. Following that h wns mndoii
major general, although veiy joung.nnd tho
command of tho cavalry corps of tho Con
fedeialo At my of tho West was given tolilm.
Tho Confedciuui congress and tho Confed
eral leglslattiro of Hottth Caroliim gavo him
n voto of thanks for his services.
After tho death of J H. It. Htunrt, in 1801,
Gen. Wheeler, at tho ago of SIS, becamo the
Mentor cavalry coiiminiider of nil tho Confed
eral) forces east nud west. At thoclosuot
tho war ho settled in Alabama nud studied
law nud Ixrnuio a cotton plunter. Gen.
Wheeler Is now a member of tho United
States homo of representatlvci from Ala
bama. Gen. William J. llnrdco was tho first to
meet Rosociiius' ndvnnco under McCoolc Ho
founed In lino of battlo tho night of Dec CO
nittl on tho morning of tho S!7th uwalted tho
Geu. Hnnlco was born In Oeorgln, in 1818.
Ho wns gmduntcd
nt West Point In
1838, and entered
tho dragoons. Jan
uary, lfcOt, ho re
signed fiom tho
United States ar
my for tho pur
ikino ot Joining tho
Confedeincy. In ri
.., , ,. ... i
" " v T.ri.linr Sfc
( tixk bravo part In
tho battlo of Slil
loh, and for It was
promoted to bo a
major genet al. In
October, 1603. ho liecamo a lieutenant general.
Ho took actlvu part In tho lighting in tho
west until tho siiuuncr.ot 1861. Ho was tho
commanding general at Savannah and
Charleston when they wcro taken possession
of by tliu Federal forces tu 1M'3. Ho was
,,.- .... . ,. .
wiiu joimsioua nriiiyanirt utiai surrcuuer,
April !i7, 1603.
By tho night of Dec 20, while McCook's
men bivouacked nt Nollusvillo, Gen. Critten
den's corps had i cached Lavlrgue, n villngo
northeast of Nashvlllo nud Murfreeslioro.
Lavlrgue was an Itnportntit strategic point
Thomas' corps was well on tho way.
A fog so thick that no man could tell whom
ho was llilngnt provonted a light lwtween
McCook nnd Hardcoon the moinliig of Dec
07. Under Its friendly cover, Hat dee burned
the bridge over Wilson's cteek and let rented
. townnls Murftcesboi-o. McCook's ndvnnco
under Johnson and Sheiidnu repaired tho
bridge, crossed tho creek, and encamped that
night at Triune
Tlio mottling ot Dec. 20 tamo, counting
off tho hours that brought tho approach of
tho great Ivittlo. Dm ing that dny McCook,
leaving part otitis command still at Triune,
took tho rest castwanl over a load leading
directly Into Murfrcesburo. Another night
passed. Dec SO McCook brought his wholo
command up, tliooo from Trltino with tho
rest, till ho met tho Confederate pickets nt
Tho first division of tho First Confedernto
corps (Polk's) nt Murfreesboro was com
manded by Maj. Geu. B. F. Cheatham, of
Tennessee. Ho was
a man of great
courage nud ad
dress. At tho lwt
tlo of Belmont,
Mo., ho escaped
enpturo by a Fed
eral regiment lit n
uniquo way Ho
saw a number ot
A 3 i -im t -. cavalrymen com-
fxt'iiWiyiiigdonn tho road
wW Ca"SSffipi towatd him. Ho
yi 'O rode forward to
meet them, at-
oe.v. oiiEATnAU. toiuUtl only by nn
ordorly. "Whnt cavalry Is that!" he asked
thorn. "Illinois cavalry," was tho answer.
"Oh. nil riuht." oulckly answered Cheat
ham. "Illinois cavalry, remain where you
They stooped, and then with much oulwanl
dignity but inward scrambling, Gen.
, Cheatham and his orderly rodo back within
i the Confederate illnci iimwognlreil
By tho morning of Dec. HO, MtCook and
tho Fcloi-ul right wing hnd advanced to
wlthIn MVcn le, of Murfiecslwo. Tho
J jcft wing un.ler Crittenden wns still nearer.
being only threo miles away from the town,
on tho bank of tho west fork of Stono river.
l Tboinai was ill lilaco in the center, with
' N.nl.,.l. .lM.Inn nf 1,1., Mrtu nnt in Mn.
. Sik oi iu.SSubT dlvb JSt. mxt tT CHtteii-
dcn. Dec 80 Oen, Jeff. O. Davis' division of
McCook's coi ih advanced quite to tho west
fork of Htone river, lighting Its way nt overy
111 forcing this ndvnnco, nnd tho two together
lost -75 men.
BATTLE OF STONE RIVER.
Tho battlo of Stone River proper began
Wednesday, Dec. 81, 1603. There had been
1 preliminary skirmishing for days lieforo, but
that dny tho general engagement oin:ncd.
TlinrA iii.m vm ions
lights, extending over
Dec. 81, Jan. 1, Jan. 3 and Jnn. 8. Thus tho
battlo of Stono River was really several bat
As Bragg hud formed Ids lino ot battlo his
center was directly opposite the Fedoral
right, under McCook. Tho night of tho 80th
Rosecrans ordered great campflres to bo
mode, extending nmllo to tho right of Mc
Cook, to give the impression that tho Hue
was longer than It was. At the samo tlmo ho
ordered two of his best brlgndci, thoso of
Wllllch and Kirk, to cover the right flank,
Inn lino noii ly at right angles to bis main
M kSs. " Rlunrl' was to
tg-i, wM tho At my nf tho , nt ritmvnrtsboin, wlillo Negley's divMou of
ffitM '?J1 l Potomac Ho wns tho samo coris advanced to within threo miles
') V , .VtyJ Bragg's obluf of I of MurfreeslKiro. Dec. 80 Rousseau's ill vie
P AKtfly cavalry, and ho , ton came up. That day Ci Ittenden's foico,
!4?!l4WJiilffl, eireclunlly covered under nslmip fli o. canto within full sight of
I Ul'ialJP? tlinf. intimitl'a rn. Mill flvrsUini. Hnrker's brlirnde. indeed.
2A 'M ,Tj-vySkMi, trvat from Ken- ,
ytWyJ) 'tueky Ho was ,
-i Kl V
McCook's battle linn tins been criticised, It
was said to bo too long and thin, and to Imj
much broken, tho divisions facing in differ
Tuesday, Dec. 110, Brngg changed his lino of
battlo sotuon lint, Ho moved his leseivo dl
vision, MiCo"wii', to Hi front, anil put I
Hntileo In coiniunnd of it. llntcklurldgo's
division foi intil tho Coufedcrato right. Cle
burtio was in his rent- ns a nupiiort.
Clcliiu no's division was taken fiom Brcckln
rldgu and placed In tho rear nf McCohii's di
vision on Brcckliiiidgo's loft, Brngg's forco
was foi intil In two lines, tho second a sixth of
a inllu U'hlitd tlio first. In front ot tho first
Meautlmo Thomas In tho center, and Ctlt
tcudeu on tho left, had, llko McCook, found
every fixit of their ndvanco to MuifrcoAlioro
on tho SXth nud Ltlth nf DecemU'r contested.
They converged to within supporting ills
tauco of each other Dec. VX That night
Rousseau's division of Tliontiis' cnips camiied
ciossid Ktono river to tho Murfreeslwro sldo
that evening, lit tho faco of Breckinrldgo's
forco, but wns ordered to return.
Bragg had weakened his tight under Breck
luridgo to ktiougthcn his left, where ho bo
lloved tho heaviest (lghtlug would bo.
MnJ. Gen John C, Biecklmldge, who com
manded tho Con-
f islet ato light tit
Stono river, bo
longed to tho fiiin-
oils old Kentucky
taiiilly of that r
name, lliey wcro
a handsome, finely
wan lioru nt Lex
ington In lS'Jl, was
educated ill his na
tive state, except a
fow months stent
nt Pi incetou college, Now Jersey. Ho studied
law anil lieciimo a distlnguUhcd member of
tho bar. Ho likowbo was a major In tho
After the war ho returned to his homo In
Lexington, Ky., nud died there in 187.".
At Stono River ho sustained u sellout do
feat A In Igndo commander in Bishop Polk's
second divMou at Stone river was Gen.
Jnmoj Ronald Chalmers, afterward famous
as tho tepivseutatlvo in tho United Suites
congress from the famous "Shoestring dis
trict" of Mississippi.
James Ronald Chalmers was hot u In Hall-
I fax county. Vn.. in
1S.1I. U'linnHvn,... .ilSWV'M
old ho was taken to
I Mis(spp, Ho was
educated in South
Carolina, but to
turned to pwietico
I riw in Mississippi
. vjunimcrs was n
, iueuiLerof the con
veiiiion nine pnssciis .
dliinnco of seees j3&-?a Si 'uii
' slon. After that . 'i'-O
ho entered tho Con-
j jS -
federate anny ns
L'iiiiiil, a II it De- OK.V CIIALMKIIH.
cnmii a brigadier ccneral. After thu war lm
I entered law and politics. Ho wns elected to
mo jcgisiaturo of Mississippi in 1870, and
thenco to tho United States congress two
As tho two armies faced each other Dec 80,
1603, Bi ngg meant to nmko t ho strongest fight
on hlsown left w 1th Clebui uo'snud Mi Cow n's
divisions under Harden against tho Federal
right under McCook. He meant to foico tho
t'ls.ei al right steadily back upon lUoivnleft
at btono i Iver like n l evolving wheel. Thnt
done, ho would seize Nashville, cutoff Roso
crnns' supplies, und tho wholo Ftilcral army
of the west would bo nt Ills mercy.
Each general gave orders to attack tho
other on Dec 31, iu tho morning. "Bienkfnst
at daj light and attack nt 7 o'clock," weio
Hose-emus' orders. "Bicikfast Iu tho duik
nnd iittnck nt dnyllght," was Hragg's coin
iunnd to tho Confidernto nrmy.
As a conseqiienee. ivthnps, llrngg obtained
tho advantage on tho Fideia! right from t lis
beginning. JohnsonVdlvlilon wnssuiprisednt
orciikfast, with neither snldiew nor olliccrs in
tlielr places nt tho moment
BATTLE OF DEC. 31. '
Tho light of Doc 111 wns tho severest of tho
series of four days' battles. Gen. A. Wll
lich's second bilgado of Johnson's division
was tho most completely surprised whon tho
Confederates under McCown advanced to
attack them nt0:30 o'clock. Gen. Wllllch
himself wns nbsent from his brlgnde, nnd nt
Johiuon's headquarters. Somo of his artil
lery horses wero nw ny fiom their guns, get
ting water in thn rear.
On lug ton failure to oxecuto Bragg's or
ders precisely, tho Confederates did not nd
vnnco in two lines, ns had been planned, but
In a long single line, McCown on tho left,
Cleburno on tlio right
Kirk's In Igndo was tho portion of tho Fed
eral aimj first attached. Kirk called on
Wlllieirs In igndo, on tho cxtrento light, for
uid. Willich's brigado had no commander,
ami no attempt wns made to respond to tho
call. Theio was sharp but shoit fighting,
Jand then Johnson's division went to pieces.
Kirk himself fell, mortally wounded, nnd
Wllllch was captured ns ho was hurrying
I back to his brlgnde. Kirk's and Willich's
brigades wcro nearly half of them killed,
wounded or captured.
, Only Col. Baldwin's brlgndo of Johnson's
division remained untuattcred. It was Iu re-
( servo near division headquarters. Tho io-
( mains of tho two beaten bilgadcs went
streaming lick to tho tear past Baldwin,
, only pausing In their flight to give Informa-
tlon of tho disaster. At that Col. Baldwin
t quickly formed his brigado in lino to meet
tho pui-suitig Confederates. Thoy appeared
in great numbers moving clouds of men.
On tho front Baldwin's brigado held them
gallantly back for a time, but they camo on
in overwhelming forco nnd flanked him on
tho right, eullladlng his brlgude. 1 hen ho
J wa3 forced luiek nnd retreated slowly, Just in
timo to ink having his whole brlcndo cap
tured. What was left of tho other brigades
i of Johnson's division wns being refo.n.ed In
tbo rear, and these Baldwin joiniHl.
On tho victorious divisions of Hardeo
swept, so fnr swinging mound tho clrclo just
as Brngg had maimed for them. Gen. Jiff
O. Davis next received the forco of tho ad
vancing wave. Davis tin ew Post's brlgndo
! quickly to the right to meet them with
changed f i out. On they canto, nu irresistiblo
avalanche nf men. Thoy charged with tho
( "icbelyell " Fresh troops from Gen Withers'
division of tlio Coufedcrato ceiittr had by this
time joined them. These camo In a tot rent
, ocalnst Cnrllu's and Woodruff's brigades of
. " unniuii uiiu out i uriKuno uiuiiimii,
of Shcriduti's division. 'Togotlicr tho threo
brigades of Cat llu, Woodruff nud Sill mndo
gallant reslstuuce, nud nt length drove back
tho nilvnuclng Confederate columns. Tho
Confcdci ntcM i efot med their lines almost Im
mediately, Ixing re-enforced by reserves from
Cheathnm's division. Again they churned,
and again weioihlven back by tho threo stuli
born brigades, Oen, Sill charged iu tuni and
drove back the forco opiost htm to their in
trcnchmeiits. But In tills gallant chnrgo Sill
himself was killed. Post's brlgude of DavV
UkUJI I sssV fM'14'st
division hnd mennwhllo also repulsfd tho at
tuck of Cleburne's men.
After changing front Post's brigado fought
neatly at light angles to their foimcr posi
tion. This mndo nu nuglo of tho left of
Davis' division and tho light of Bherldnu's.
Against this nuglo tho Confederates threw
nil tliolr force for tho purimsuof eullladlng tho
Union i auks. Twico they had Iwen repulsed,
yet a thlnl tlmo they assaulted tho Federal
position. At that thlnl attack tho long en
ilming bilgndes of Davis' division gavo way
and fell buck Into tho cedar thickets behind
Then Sheridan, next on Davis' left, was In
turn obliged topi otect his own light Hank.
Col, Gcorgo W, ltobcitrt commnuded Sheri
dan's left brigado. Sheridan quickly w Ith
draw Hill's brlgnde, wlioso commander had
been killed, from his right and ordered Col,
Holioi t-s to tako Its pla o nud chnrgo on tho
Confederates, who pursued Davlu' division
into tho coin' grove. Rolieits dl I si and
checked their iiilvnnco long enough for Slicrl
dan toivfoi nt Sill's brigado and allot her on
a now lino. Roberts Joined tho now lino with
hlsbtlgndo. Blieridnn then nttempted to ro-
tot m D.ivls' division, hut failed.
Stlll tho Confedeintes swept on In ovor
iiil-ii'iixiiik nines. iiii',y nt lengui iiiriitu
Sheildau's own right. Tito tight of tho cen
ter coi m, Thomas', wits held by Negley. Im
meillntely Sheiidaii joined his fi out to Ncg
ley's, and foi med Ro1hi ts on tho right, facing
Tho successive ositious on tho right wing
ot tho Federal foico thnt mottling mar lio
described as two sides of a square, ono facing
south, tho other east, forming an angle with
each other Ono nfter another tho south
"ides of tho square melted away, again to bo
luiiuwcu ny inner untitles swung round 10
t no iigm. in t no hJiino position, ruo mam lino
Sheridan at length formed his brigades In
thrco sides of a
hollow squtii evinc
ing two bilgades to
faco westward, at
light angles to
Rebel tx nnd in tho
it nr of Negloy.
Upon all thrco
Mdisof tins squato
ponied shot nud
? shell at once. Three
times tho wholo
forco of Hardee's
and Polk's corps,
four ill visions,
(liiHhcd In mass against it. Tito artillery ot
tlio two opposing forces was hi some coses
not nioi o titan 000 feet npnt t.
Hicli tlmo tho Confederates wero repulsed,
but nt great cost. The gallant Col. Rolcrts,
wtio had defied Confederate bullets that
Chtistmas night six da liefnre, was shot
dead Neatly all the horsts ixdouglug to
Shufer's biigiidenitillerv were killed. Slicrl
ilnn's men had exhausted their iiinuiuuitloti.
They had been lighting almost continuously 111
this ten llli battlo for four hours. Shet idnii fell
back thtongli tho cedars to the Mmfrcesboro
pllco. Negley' division, too, wns btoken.
111.11,. !... II..I.. a ..!..,. tltt... ,llu.....ri..l
'"''"- "K" "' """' ""-"'-".-
,, in ,'""""; "-'" " "' Somo of tho ofllceiN wished to give up tho
the left His bcadqua.tc rs were in the rear flKUtanil Ix.tilu NllshvUi0. RVL.rfls re
ef Critlenden's cotps. Rosecrans' plan wns fus,Hi, That night ho completed his new lino
for his left to cros- Stmie liver nud sweep , nnd prepared for tho light of
into .Muiucesuoro wmio ms rigut engugeit
Hmdeo's main forco west of tho liver nnd
Gen. Vnu Cievociossed early in tlio morn
ing witli two bilgndes, meeting no opposition.
Gen. T. J. Wood's division wns following
Van Clevc A thunderous ronrlng on tho
light showed Unit McCook was engaged.
Alt hour passed. The left wing was 6tlll
cro-slng quietly to tho enst bank of Stono
liver. Suddenly ono of McCook's staff lodo
hurl led ly to the coiumiiiider-lu-chli'f und told
him tho light wing wns hard pressed nud
needed iissNtane". But ho was not told how
badly It wns going; that Johnson's division
hnd been smpiised nud touted, nnd that
Davis' brigades had been doubled up, ono
after tho other. Rosecrans mei ely sent bnck
wonl to Mi Cook to bold on to tho last, and
then weutmi ciossltig his left It was t ruo
tho firing sounded more and moiotothowcst,
but McCook hnd been directed by Rosccinus
to iK'ar gradually to tlio west and not thin the
light, In military parlance to icfttso more and
more to tho i Ight, and this seeiiUil In accord
ance with Injunctions, Rocciaus' plan nf
battlo also compiled xomewiuit the idea ot a
At length another messenger m i ived, toll
ng tho coiumatider thut tho wholo right wing
was In retreat,
It was n time forsw 1ft action.
Van ClovoVi In Igndes were I ecalled and sent
quickly to the center. Kouxscuu was sent
into Iho cedar thickets to aid Sheridan nud
Negley. Van Clevo and Wood were ordered
to ceaso crossing tho river ami come up on tho
double quick. Ucti. l'nituer's division was
tho only ono of tho left wing that had not
moved to cross tho river. It was chiefly on
tho west side ot the Murfreesboro pike. Gen.
W. B. Hnzeu's biigado lay paitly ncross
tho piko. Geu. Hnzeti died wlillo chief
ot tho United States signal scrvlco. Roso
cuius at once began to form a now
lino In place of that which had
liecn biokeu. As tho victorious Confederates
rushed on, still turning tho clrclo ot the wheel,
theyeiicouuteied Hnzeu's nuttCrufl'sbtigades
of l'ulmci'd division. They met gallantly tho
outset of tho enemy whllo Rosecrans wns
forming his new line.
Rousseau's division, meantime, cut Its wny
through tho Confederates to the icar of the
cellar thicket, and with Negley's division
foi med In Hue, with their Imttiries upon
n slight hill to tho icar. Pnlmei's division
was on Negley's left, and here, with Rous-
senti's mm Negley's divisions, and Hareu's
and Crufl's In Igndes of Piilmct's division,
was somo of the most despunto fighting of
that bloody day. F.on, the little 1,111
Gueuthci's nud Loomis' battel ies poured
double shotted canister upon the Confederate
masses. Four ttetei mined assaults ucio made
to break the Union line in front ot Rous
seau, but each wns
repulsed In a
cbargo n gainst
Chalmers Mas so
voi oly wounded
Palmer had ono
moio bilgniiv left
ill Ills division CjMl '
Close's. It foi lmd , i,i&fc-52A -?
hlsiesene ut llist $& JVEJ
but was at length -r'S&SSv 'i?S
il fit li si l"ttf fii't liltl Cr Tl V m .
on Hnzen'rt left.yvi
and lost hnlf its s
numlier at n iKiltit
called "Round Foi- QEN. w. n. iiazkn.
est," ngnuist which the Confederates especi
ally din clod tin Ir foico. Still further to tho
left Gen Wood's division becnmo engaged
hotly by Hiis'l.inililge, but tlio attempt to
drive Wood f i kiu his xisitlon wus unsuccess
ful. Pii i mm to this allot Bragg's nimybad
lieeu cngagid but Hieikmrldge, and now
evciyoiinof Iii-i1ivMoiis was in tlio battle.
Thote wns (lglitiu all along tho lino, desper
ate lighting, too.
One unsuccessful ussutilt was made on
Wood nt 9 o'clock, another ut 4. A terrific,
but iiNo Ineffectual, assault wns made on tho
Federal light audicntur lutein thoaftornoon.
Then il.tiknos fell and the llrlng coasod.
DetaihiiieiiUciimo out frntu each tldo to bury
t 'jo dead. Both in mles Hleyklton Jbo flekL
J-atX ,w 'J
Rosecrans showed hlmstlf thnt day n gal
laut leader of men. HldltiK liltlar and thither
on tho front lino ho was constantly exposed
to danger At tho tlmo of tho nssault of
Brcckim Idgo's mill aj.-altist "Itoiind Foi est,"
Rosecrans was thcru with his staff, being
anxious foi his left A shell from tho enemy
bunt near them. A plcco gi axed Rosecrans,
Just missing him, and took off tho head of lila
chief of staff, Col Garescho.
Col Julius P Gaicschowa a Cuban nnd
a gallant on leer,
nnd his dentil wns
ed by tils comindcH.
On that day of
11 glit lug Go ii,
Thomas, on tho
iTiuvr, iimi uu i on-
fwirtfinftv in mntil L-ri
.......... .; ... r
test on a largo scatut
tics which after
wnnl mndo him fa
mous. Through nil
tho fiery onlcnl of
Stono River ho stood cool nnd unmoved, glv-
ling ordcra, nud to him Rosecrnim turned a
, 10 n roCK ni ileiHindeilce.
It wns tho formation nf his now lino of bat
tlo that wived tho dav for Ilosccrnns Dec. 81,
Tho battlo of Stono River wns fought on tho
westnnd noith ot Murfreeslmro. liosecinns'
lino fnced to tho enst nnd south Dec. 81 In the
morning. Tho now lino wns northwest of tho
old ono and fnced more townnl tho west The
successive positions of tho Federal nnd Con-
' fwcrftto u,!M at Htone River Is nu Interesting
mid instructive stud v in military science.
In tho evening of the 81st Itoseernns nud
his geni'i ids met nnd conflicted tho situation.
Gen. Wood had liecn wounded In tho foot
early in tho day, but bad nover left thosaddlo
till 7 nt night Then ho took from tho
wounded foot his boot nnd held It tipstdo
down. Blood poured fiom It llko water. Iu
that condition iho general had sat upon hi
horso and given orders all day
BTO.VU IUVKIl BATTI.K OltOUND.
J JAN. 1, 18G3.
I Tho first day of tho now year was Thurs
day. Karly iu tlio morning
itcs tried without success to forco Thomas
lino In tho center. Tho attempt was soveral
times renowed equally In vnln. Thero win
also somo cavalry skli mlshtng. In the after
noon Bragg iniissid his troops heavily to wind
tho Federal iluht, but no attack was made
by either general. Uu tlio l'etlornl sldo dur
ing tho day Van Clove's division again crowed
tho liver to tho Murficcxboio side, and hero
was continued skirmishing between his men
mil Polk's coi ps. Some other slight changes
In the Union troops weio mndo.
BATTLE OF JAN. 2.
At daylight on Friday Gen. Bragg opened
flro on the Federal center. Ho also opened
flro on McCook on the right Ho was en
deavoi Ing, ns he had In en tho day before, to
find whether Rosecrans wns utrentiug. A
I heavy in t tilery lit u sjieedlly convinced him to
At tho same time ho intido tho discovery
that Van Clovo's division hadobtaiiiul a posi
tion to eufllndo Polk's w hole line. Bicckin
l idgo's division was ordered to dlslodgo him.
It advanced iu two Hues, Pillow's nud Gen.
I Roger M. Hanson's brigades iu tlio first lino,
Preston's and Adams' In tho second. They
were piotectid by cnvalry on tho right
Van Clovo's division was cemmnuded by
Col. Samuel lleatty. Negley's division was
placed In sltlon on the west bank of tho
I Iver as u reserve, to support Heatty In case
of mid Atthosniuo time Gen. Ciittcndcn
mussed his nrtillcry on tho west bank oppo
site Hi cckiuridgo's division, nud prepnied to
rnko tho Confederates as they camo on tot
They moved up gallantly, Iu splto of tho
cnuuouadlng, nnd (qiciied a heavy flic Van
Clove's ill vision letiied across tho l Iver. They
slipped between tlio incii of Negloy's lino and
went to tho roar to ivfoi'm.
mo reiierni toiiiiiies were nero saved n
tho strategy of Col. John F. Miller, cotummu
Ing Negley s right brigade. Negley himself wt
absent In tho tear. Col. Miller ordered th
The Federal foi tunes were hero saved by
John F. Miller, command
division to lio dow u bcblud the bluff ot tho
river till Van Clove's men had passed over
and bihltid them. Then, ns Breckinrldgo's
men cnuiu on In pursuit, tho recumbent
soldiers wero to riso suddenly nnd jour a
deadly flto in their faces.
Tho order was curiicd out to tho letter.
Breckluildgo lecolled nnd fell bnck. "Chnrgo
! acioss thoilveii" was Miller's next order.
It was done nud tho Confederates wero driven
to their intrcnchmeiits. Whllo ut tho liver
&L";1 X.-1? "....SS!:
ot Ignoring tho order, knowing tho sltuntlon
better than his commander. The Confeder
ates were biokiu nud tho colors of tho
Twenty-sixth Tennesseo wero numliercd
among the enptmed Confederate bnttlo flags.
"It we don't charge tho lebels, they'll
charge us," Col, Miller had said lieforo cross
ing tho river.
After it wns done, nnd Hazon'sbiigade nnd
Davis' division wero following on nfter his
mon, then Miller obeyed his oulers, went
back to tho west sldo of tho river und took
position on his old lino.
Brngg sent Anderson's brigado across to
the east side ot tho liver to join Iheckln
ridgo. But Rotocrans presently ciossod Crit
tenden's wholo corps, who took position on
tlio bluffs nf tho i nst Ixink.
The morning of Jan. il Bragg began heavy
picket Hi Ing ngaiii, to osci i lain how Inrgo a
forco was in his fiont. Onco moi-i tho an
swer was not satisfactory. Tlio night be
foro, Polk nu I his division cotnmauduw had
scut Biaggn letter advising liitii to tetieat
Ho decidul to do so. By 11 at night, Jan. 8.
his foices weio in motion soutliivniil, and
Rosed aiis had won u famous victoiy, Mon
day, Jim n, Geu. Thomas entered Murfrees
lioro, The Confederate generals, Rains and Hnn
son, weio killed nt Stono River. So, also,
wcro every one of Shei Idnn's In Igudo com
mnnders Hill, Shaferuiid ltnlnits.
Of tho fine cugncrd, llosti inns had 43,
400: Biagg, 4.(ii)0. Vjwi lostnboutUS per
cent, of Ins wh"lr ut my Iu klllisl, wounded
nud enptmed. For the Federal coue Ibis
v - ------- , ..-.-. ... f -.-- .- .HV..VSV
seven iiavh' naming ininiH'ti mitslivlllo nnd
Mtirfieesliomliiid gieat icsuItH, It lost Ken
tucky to the Confideiacy bev ond hoiie, also
Iho Stone River fight was one of tho great
buttles of the w ar, If not of the woi Id.
ff ' 5ViN "Misfamsex
1 1 ft h K-o Im.
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