The frontier. (O'Neill City, Holt County, Neb.) 1880-1965, April 08, 1937, Image 2

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around the
py Carter Field ^
Washington.—Since his arrival in
Washington, Georges Bonnet, the
new French ambassador, has been
the target at nearly every social
function he has attended for ques
tions about the sit-down strikes and
what has happened about them.
The questioners started off with the
popular delusion that the sit-down
strike originate^ in France.
M. Bonnet hastens to set them
right about this. He is not sure just
where they did originate, but he
knows they were in vogue in Poland
before they were ever employed in
But the big surprise is what has
happened since they started in
France. The French government,
questioners are told, simply said it
would not stand for them! It so
notified strikers and labor leaders.
When sit-down strikers were ap
proached b; the French police, they
abandoned their "posts” with only
vocal objections. No one was hurt.
There was no disorder.
All of which is rather startling to
Washington’s diners-out, especially
aa they had assumed that the pres
ent French government is almost
Communist—certainly more liberal
than most, and presumably much
more pro-labor than the present ad
ministration in this country.
Meanwhile there is plenty of dis
cussion in senate and house cloak
rooms, and elsewhere, as to what
ought to be done about sit-down
strikers, and who ought to do it.
There are plenty of suggestions that
Grover Cleveland would know how
to handle it. In fact, his name was
mentioned to a recent visitor on
Capitol hill by two very distin
guished senators.
Where Power Lies
There is a very wide difference of
opinion as to where the constitution
al power lies. Some lawyers among
the national legislators insist that
the federal and state governments
have joint power. The theory here
is that the sit-down strikes in the
automobile plants affect interstate
commerce, hence thrusting respon
sibility on the federal government
for the movement of goods across
state lines.
This is a minority view, as most
lawyers agree that automobile pro
duction, to take the most popular
instance, is strictly intrastate, de
spite the very obvious effects such
a strike would have on interstate
commerce, both in the flow of sup
plies to the plant and the flow of
automobiles from the plant.
However, the Supreme court Is
expected to settie that point, very
definitely, In it* forthcoming deci
sion on the Wagner labor relations
act. The two cases are almost on
all fours. The government contends
it has the right to compel plants
engaged in similar production to
submit to labor regulations of the
federal government. The compa
nies insist they are intrastate. The
decision of the court will almost
certainly decide that point of con
Most lawyers who have studied
the case believe that the court will
hold the Wagner act unconstitution
al, some of them even predicting
that the decision will be unanimous.
If that should prove true, it will
become almost certain that respon
sibility for handling sit-down strikes
—if they are to be handled by any
governmental power at all, which in
itself is highly dubious—will rest
with state governments. Perhaps
even local governments.
A Real Menace
Despite all reports to the con
trary, the administration does not
propose tc attempt compulsory ar
bitration of labor disputes. In the
first place, the administration has
no desire to get in a knockdown
and drag out tight with organized
labor, and if there is one subject
cn which John L. Lewis and William
Green see eye to eye it is that they
want no compulsory arbitration
least of all from the government.
The administration recognizes the
seriousness of the present labor de
velopment. President Roosevelt has
told members of the house that he
is much concerned about the possi
bilities of the sit-down strikes; that
he regards them not only as illegal
but as a real menace to the country.
He made this admission despite
the knowledge of every man in the
group to whom he was speaking
that he himself had virtually forced
General Moto/s to negotiate while
sit-down strikers were occupying its
plants, which action resulted not
only in the success of C. I. O. in that
battle, but made its victory in steel
easy, and started a wave of strikes
and other labor disturbances in
other industries.
What the administration is figur
ing on is something in the nature of
the mediation board which has ex
isted for many years for the han
dling of disputes between railway
managements and workers. This
board has never had any authority.
It merely sits in with the conflict
ing elements and seeks to bridge
over the differences by moral sua
sion, very much as Edward F. Me
Grady, assistant secretary of la
bor, and other Irbor officials have
been doint, in the various strike
situations outside the railroad field.
Await Court Fight
The most the government hopes
for, as a matter of fact, is some
sort of agreement that there must
be 30 days’ notice before a strike is
actuallj made effective—a sort of
breathing spell treaty, so to speak.
But few believe that even this would
work, thinking that the modern idea
of nations making war before they
formally declare it is just as effec
tive—a bit of tactics—even if un
fair—in labor warfare as in inter
national conflicts.
Meanwhile, of course, all this la- j
bor legislation, including also the
much desired—on the part of the ad
min'stration—federal regulation of
wages and hours, is waiting on the
outcome of the President’s fight to
enlarge the Supreme court.
It would be bad tactics, most New
Dealers believe, to put any legisla
tion through before the high court
has its new blood transfusion. To
get any part of the program accom
plished in advance of action on the
court enlargement law would, it is
thought, take just that much steam
out from the pressure for the court |
fight. This battle is tough enough,
the New Dealers realize, without
surrendering an ounce of advantage.
All of which spells infinite delay.
There is no thought in the senate
of expediting that debate. Senator
Henry F. Ashurst, chairman of the
senate judiciary committee, despite
a complete flop to the President's
side, announces he will fight any
move to invoke cloture. Which
means that the talkers in the senate
will not be restrained.
Best estimates are that the final
vote will not come before June, even
if then, which means that all the
new labor legislation, and the farm
legislation as well, must wait until
after that.
Heavier Spending
Much heavier federal spending
with higher taxes on 1937 incomes,
both corporate and individual—de
spite the heavily increased returns
of March 15—are definitely on the
administration's agenda. The vig
orous disclaimers on Capitol hill
that followed the insistence of M.
S. Eccles, reserve board chairman,
that the budget must be balanced
by new levies are just so much eye
Congress is in a spending mood
and the administration is headed
toward what tories will call a
spending orgy. Bitter protests of
senators and representatives will be
calmed by administration insistence
that new taxes to finance spending,
without too great additions to the
federal debt, are necessary to head
of» inflation—which would hit the
consumer. Those in congress who
oppose the tax boost will be put in
the position of protecting the rich
and the corporations—of grinding
the faces of the poor.
Capitol hill leaders have not yet
been consulted, just as they were
not on the Supreme court enlarge
ment proposal.
Chairman Eccles’ statement was
not prompted solely by the slight
decline in price of federal bonds.
The administration is interested in
that too, but far from frightened—
actually the day Eccles made his
statement government 4 per cent
bonds sold at 112, and some 2V«
per cent bonds sold at a fraction
over par, so the decline could hardly
be called a debacle.
The government is concerned
about this slight decline in prices
because the whole move is a straw
in the wind which, if it continued,
would result in higher interest rates.
The government does not want high
er interest rates, for two reasons. It
wants to keep its own interest pay
ments down, and it wants to en
able business to borrow as cheaply
as possible so as to encourage new
industries and greater employment.
Trial Balloon
So Eccles’ statement was not Just
a trial balloon. It was a warning
set up to make the impact less
dreadful when it comes, later this
year. The administration is gravely
concerned over the political and
economic effects of the continued
advance in the cost of living, al
ready set in motion by business re
vival, advances in wages and short
ening of hours. It fears something
approaching a buyers’ strike a lit
tle later when a great mass of con
s Tiers, with no pay raises, find
their incomes simply won’t stretch.
Hence the importance of budget
balancing, or at least a step in that
direction, so as to head off the fear
of actual currency inflation accel
erating price rises already resulting
from other causes.
But the really Important point is
that the administration is de
termined on much greater spend- ,
ing on relief to meet the situation
described by President Roosevelt
in recent speeches—for instance,
that so huge a percentage of the
population is still wretchedly
housed, ill-clad, undernourished and
generally below the level of a de
cent standard of living.
Roosevelt does not contemplate
ever eliminating federal relief. He
regards it as a certainty for all
time, regardless of whether there
be prosperity or depression. He
agrees with Harry L. Hopkins that
even in boom times there will be
something like 5,000,000 families
whose incomes must be supplement
ed by the government. He also
agrees with Hopkins that the gov
ernment has /lot scratched the sur
face in providing better housing.
C Bell Syndicate.—WNU Service.
An Open-Air Cafe in Peiping.
Prepared by National Geographic Society,
Washington, D. C.—WNU Service.
ALL the roads in farther Asia
lead to Peking, and its
name throughout the East is
rich as Troy’s. You may ap
proach it along the imperial high
way, from the southwest, over flag
stones rutted by the cart wheels of
a thousand years. The other end
of that road is in Istanbul; it was
the route Marco Polo followed, visit
ing the Grand Khan in the courts of
the sunrise.
You may come down to the city,
now called Peiping, from the north,
through Kalgan gate in the Wall and
Nankow pass, as the Tatar coun
querors came, trotting on shaggy
ponies behind their yak-tail stand
ards. Or you may enter by the rail
road, from tfie sea, 38 travelers ar
rive these latter days.
In any case, nothing warns you
of this city; nothing that you have
heard prepares you. You proceed
over a flat country, khaki-colored in
winter, variegated green in sum
mer, which looks the same in ev
ery direction. It is not that the
view is without incident; every yard
of land is cultivated, and people in
blue coolie cloth, with their small
industrious beasts, move like ants
across it. Roads and footpaths con
nect group after group of huddled
mud buildings, each unit behind its
Punctuating the fields are mounds
ranging in size from very small
humps to impressive hillocks
framed in striking architectural
conceptions. These are graves, for
the dead are not segregated in
China. Trees stand in thinnish
clumps and straggling lines,
trimmed thriftily of all superfluous
branches, and there are dark clus
terings of evergreens, planted in
formal groves, to shield important
ghosts from the rude north winds.
Among the grave mounds and the
villages you see tablets of remem
brance, upright plinths of carved
marble set upon immemorial tor
toises, facing south; and shrines to
gods and princes, long forgotten,
standing starkly in the furrows.
But each incident of landscape
repeats itself to monotony, and
there is a confusion, rather than a
dearth, of landmarks. South and
east the great sky borders the hol
low land, and north and west the
hills circle, their contours lifting
sharp and brittle through the clear
air, remote and inconsequent as
painted scenery on a screen.
Many Smells and Many Walls.
Ahead, the horizon takes on reg
ularity. A long gray wall, spaced
by unusual towers, rises suddenly
as thunder. Your road enters a
malodorous suburb, and crosses a
canal of yellow, viscous water, bor
dered by willow trees and washer
women and populous with squad
rons of cla'mant snow-white ducks.
Complicated and violent smells as
sail the nostrils. Before you opens
the dark cavern of a gate, where
bored soldiers in gray uniforms, and
police in dingy black, armed with
rifles watch a press of man traffic
and animal traffic that flows with
out ceasing, to the accompaniment
of unimaginable noise. You en
ter Peiping, and at the end of every
vista stands a wall.
There has been a city hereabouts
for three thousand years. Histori
ans locate a town of the Yin dynas
ty, called Chi, cn a site near the
northwest corner of the present Ta
tar city in the Twelfth century B. C.
The Manchu emperor, Chien Lung,
marked the place where one of its
gates stood with a tablet, which you
may see to this day, on the ram
part called the Mongol Walk a short
distance north of Peiping, beside
the road to the Bell Temple.
However, the mutations of Peip
ing’s history have been many times
told; volumes have been taken in
the telling.
The Ming, which is to say, the
Bright, dynasty, built Peiping on a
grand scale. Yung Lo. third em
peror of the line, moved his court
up from Nanking in the early four
teen-hundreds. and created a cap
ital worthy of his greatness.
The Bell Tower, which was in the
center of Khanbaligh, visited by
Marco Polo in the reign of Kublai
Khan, stands now in the upper third
of Peiping; and the Observatory is
north of the present southeast
angle. You “can ride the line of
Kublai’s walls to the north, and
they are formidable earthen ram
parts; but goats graze upon weed
grown mounds that were the guard
towers on the gates.
Big Wall of Yung Lo.
Yung Lo’s wall, called the Tatar
Wall for no good reason, is im
mense. Its circuit is some 14 miles,
and its outline is almost square,
rounded slightly at the northwrest
angle, where a stream enters the
city. It has a core of earth and
j rubble, faced with heavy masonry.
Its width at the base is 60 feet,
narrowing to about 50 feet at the
top, or the width of three war
chariots driven abreast, and it is
more than 40 feet high.
Bastions thrust out at regular in
tervals, and the top is crenelated,
once affording shelter to bowmen.
Wide ramps lead up to the nine
gates: three on the south, and two
for each of the other faces. Above
every gate stands a guard tower, !
with quarters for the garrison, and
formerly these were covered by
curtain walls enclosing a space
where travelers were; examined and
duty assessed and collected on
goods coming in.
Peiping is no longer the capital.
From 1912 to 1928 the republic sat
in the dismantled pavilions that had
housed the emperors. Then the gov
ernment moved to Nanking. By
edict the name of the ancient city
was abandoned; Peking, “North
ern Capital,” became officially
Pciping, “City of the Northern
Plains,” or “Northern Peace.” So
said the People’s party, the postal
authorities, and the office-holders.
But to the residents and to the for
eigners who love it, the city re
mains Peking. From the heights
within the walls one may survey
the city.
Climb Coal hill. It is an artificial j
eminence, rising 210 feet above the j
town, lying east and west, its con- j
tours following the conventional art i
form of the breaking wave. A cen- i
tral pavilion crowns it, flanked by i
four smaller pavilions to left and
right as the slopes descend. Cedars J
and white pines and sparse grass
clothe it sketchily.
There is a legend that some
thrifty emperor created it by piling
up a reserve supply of coal against
a seige, covering the fuel with dirt
by way of camouflage—but there is
no coal here and never was. His
businesslike people would have sold
it at a reasonable profit long cen
turies ago. More likely it was made
of the dirt excavated from the line
of artificial lakes which the poetic
inhabitants call the “Three Seas,”
lying in the old Imperial City.
View of City From Coal HiU.
The pavilion on the crest houses
a tall Buddha, once richly gilded,
now scoured to drabness by the sun
and wind, which broods eternally
over the city. Standing between his
knees, ypu are on the medial line
of Peiping, and a little north of its
exact center.
In general, the view is of a one
story town, with geometrical pat
terns of low roofs and walled court
yards defined in blocks by the in
tersections of the great streets.
From this level rise the temples
and pavilions, and the gate towers,
the bright tiles of their roofs in
dicating official status. Yellow tile
was wholly imperial; green tile an<^
blue, the latter rare, meant the in
terest of the government or the Im
perial family.
There are, among the varicolored
roofs, surprisingly numerous lines
and clumps of trees. In the spring
and summer Peiping gives the im
pression of being extensively wood
ed; and in the winter, when the
leaves are off, you see that every
temple inclosure and pleasure gar
den is set with noble evergreens,
white pines and cedars, so that the
prospect is never barren.
You see the three cities, one with
in another, like a Cantonese puzzle
box, and the fourth, the Chinese
City, away to the south, beyond
Chien Men and Hata Men. The
foursquare line of the Tatar Wall
lays out the Tatar City, which was,
under the Manchus, divided among
the Eight Banners, each having its
own district in the several quad
Then your eye picks up the pink
ish-red wall of the Imperial City,
pierced now by the great streets
that run east and west. It was orig
inally a long, narrow rectangle,
lying from north to south on the
axis of Peiping. It enclosed the
“Three Seas,” the lakes shining sil
ver in the sun down its western
half; and in it were located the pal
aces of the court officials and im
perial princes. It stretches from the
Tung Chang an Chieh to the Ti An
Men Ta Chieh, north of Coal hill,
which are the two east and west
The republic smeared black paint
and democratic blue over its im
perial red; but it is pleasant to ob
serve that the black and btue have
flaked away, and the ancient ruddy
water pigment persists to delight
the eye. It is no longer a distinc
tive quarter; the houses of the
dukes and princes are nearly all
for rent.
Tortoise Leg Hones Valued
On the west African coast the
bones from the legs of tortoises are
much valued as anklets, in order to
give their wearers endurance.
T»lk» About ®
Inherited Overweight.
WHEN a patient consults a phy
sician regarding a reduction
in his or her weight one of the first
questions the physician will ask is j
about the parents, grandparents, ■
uncles, aunts and cousins. If there j
is a "tendency” to overweight on
the side of either of the parents, j
the physician knows that the weight
reduction is apt to take some time.
Dr. Barton
Dr. R. Gurney,
Buffalo, in Archives
of Internal Medi
cine, Chicago, stud- j
died seventy - five
stout women in the j
outpatient depart
ment of the Buffalo
General hospital,
with three points in
mind: (1) the fac
tors associated with
the onset of over
weight as com
pared to the same
factors or circumstances occurring
in a non-stout group of women; (2)
the indicence or occurrence of over
weight in the parents of the stout
group as opposed to that in the par
ents of a non-stout group; (3) the
body build of the progeny or chil
dren of different matings with es
pecial reference to inheritance of
Fifty-five women who were defin
itely not stout were chosen at ran
dom as "controls” (that is for com
parison because they were of nor
mal weight and build). These “con
trols” were of the same age group
as the stout women and had prac
tically the same number of opera
tions and the same number of chil
dren — operations and childbirth
were named by both groups of wom
en as the time at which they noticed
the great increase in weight. Others
reported that the great increase in
weight came on at puberty (14 to
16 years of age) and others that it
came on at the change of life (45
to 50 years of age).
When the “build” of the parents
of the stout group and of the con
trol group is investigated a differ
ence in the occurence of over
weight is noticed.
Many Had Stout Parents.
Of sixty-one stout women whose
family history was easily investi
gated, twenty-six had a stout moth
er, nine had a stout father, and fif
teen had both a stout mother and a
stout father. In contrast to all this
stoutness in the family history, of
the forty-seven not stout patients
whose family history was also
easily investigated, fourteen had a
stout mother, one had a stout father,
and three had both a stout mother
and a stout father.
Thus in the non-stout group there
was a total of 38 per cent with
either one or both parents stout
as opposed to 82 per cent in the
stout group.
A study of the progeny or children
of different matings is of interest.
There were 89 children from mat
ings of stout persons, 65 of whom
were stout; of the 170 children of mat
ings of a stout and a not stout per
son, 70 were stout; of the 176 chil
dren of matings of persons who
were not stout only 16 were stout.
This would show that while in
stout individuals there are cell ele
ments which tend to leanness, in
thin or non-stout individuals there
are apparently no cell elements that
tend to stoutness.
It is in the cases with an "in
herited” tendency to overweight
that a physician is justified in using
gland extracts. Where the excess
weight is distributed all over the
body, the thyroid extract may be of
help. Where the excess weight is
over abdomen, hips and shoulders,
with forearms and lower legs lend
er, the use of extract of the anterior
pituitary gland (the little gland ly
ing on the floor of the skull) should
give results.
• • •
Planning Health and Energy.
When the business man plans that
his income will take care of ex
penses, he is said to budget his fi
nancial undertakings. A great many
housewives work on or use a bud
get, putting aside so much for rent,
for food, for fuel, for clothing, for
medical and dental attention and
a little for the savings bank.
It would seem then that it would
be only good sense if each and
every one of us were to budget our
health, our energy, so that we could
do all that was possible for our
health or energy to do without rob
bing ourselves and so causing ill
health and lack of energy.
Dr. George Crile, in his book "Dis
eases Peculiar to Civilized Man"
shows how the insane desire for
speed of all kinds which afflicts
and sometimes seems like to ruin
this rather mad generation is the
cause of such well recognized ail
ments as ulcer of the stomach and
intestine, increase in the activity
of the thyroid gland in the neck
so that all the processes of the body
are driven at an increased rate of
speed, weakness of the muscular
and nervous system, and brought
about the knowledge of how to cure
these conditions by cutting the trans
mission between the brain and the
overdriven organs.
The treatment is for the physi
cian to show the patient that it is
overspending of energy in work or
play that is causing the symptoms,
CoDrrlKht.—WNU Serytc*.
t Items of Interest
Boiling Cabbage — When you
cook cabbage, put a small hand
ful of breadcrumbs tied in muslin
into the pan. The bread absorbs
all the bitter juices and makes
the vegetable more digestible.
* * *
Washing Embroidery — Do not
wring embroidery after washing.
Press out as much moisture as
possible between the folds of a
towel, then spread on a towel or
blotter to dry, face up.
• • *
Suede Shoes — Rain spots can
be removed from suede shoes by
rubbing with fine emery board.
* * •
Ironing Shirts — Soft collars at
tached to shirts should be ironed
on the right side first, then on
the wrong side. This prevents
wrinkling the collar.
* * •
Sausage and Fried Apples —
Pan broil the required number of
small sausages or cakes of sau
sage meat and as soon as the fat
collects, add as many halved,
cored and unpeeled apples as re
quired, first dipping them in flour
Yes, What?
“Better be careful.”
“What for?”
“The worm will turn.”
“What can a worm do if he does
Home Talent
Jones—Now, there’s Shelley—
don’t you think he employs too
many metaphors?
Binks—Yes, I think he ought to
give American workmen a
chance.—Hartford Courant.
My Word!
Lotta Kerves, our luscious sten
og, was under discussion soon aft
er she was hired. “How’s she do
ing?” asked the boss.
“Well,” hesitated the office
manager, “she spells atrocious
“Sa-well!” excljymed the boss.
“Keep her. I canH spell that my
self!”—Washington Post.
April Foolery
The office boy wandered in a
bit late t’other day, to be met with
this question from the office man
ager (a verra, verra tough guy):
“Say when were you born?”
“April 2,” replied the office boy.
“H’m,” snapped the office man
ager, “late again!”
to which a little sugar has been
added. Saute slowly until soft and
browned. Place on a serving dish,
with two small sausages on each
♦ • *
Cooking Vegetables — A small
piece of butter added to the water
in which vegetables are to
be cooked will prevent them from
boiling over.
* • *
Making a Footstool — Do you
know that you can make unique
footstools out of the single spring
seats of an old automobile? Cover
the old seat with upholstery and
attach castors at the four corners.
This will give you a comfortable
seat or footstool for your summer
* • *
Worn Socks — Children very of
ten get enormous holes in the heels
of their socks. This is often due to
the lining of the shoe which has
worn rough. If the ragged bits
are cut off and the inside of the
shoe covered with adhesive tape,
many a large “hole” will be pre-'
* * *
Cocoa Egg Cake Filling — White
of one egg; one cup icing sugar;
two teaspoons cold water; four
tablespoons cocoa; half teaspoon
vanilla. Beat white of egg until
stiff and dry. Mix cocoa and sugar,
add cold water. Add gradually to
egg white until thick enough to
* « •
Baking Potatoes — Before put
ting potatoes in the baking-tin,
stand them in boiling water for
a few minutes, then drain on a
clean cloth. They will cook more
quickly and taste better.
* * *
Flavoring Gravy — Half milk
and half water makes the best
colored and best flavored gravy.
WNU Service.
Don’t take chances! Use only
genuine O-Cedar Polish —
favorite of housekeepers tho
world over for 30 years.
O-Cedar protects and
preserves furniture,
. prevents spider- A
n web checking. Av
in the bright red Jewel carton
• Cakes are more delicate, pastry and biscuits flakier and more delicious
when you use this finer shortening! For Jewel is a Special-Blend of
vegetable fat with other bland cooking fats. Actual tests prove that it
creams faster and makes more tender baked foods.
| (Copyright 1917, by Frtd Neher)
“Well, nosey . . . is it??I"