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About The frontier. (O'Neill City, Holt County, Neb.) 1880-1965 | View Entire Issue (Nov. 5, 1936)
WASHINGTON, D. C.—Mark
ing up increases n receipts
from 48 of 65 classes of
taxes, the internal revenue
bureau reported that its total col
lections for the first quarter of this
fiscal year climbed $164,000,000 over
the same period a year ago.
The increase, a rise of almost 20
per cent, pushed aggregate collec
tions to $1,009,994,623, compared
with $845,471,253 in the correspond
ing period last year.
Treasury officials said it was the
first time since 1928 that first quarter
collections had exceeded $1,000,000,
000. The receipts, however, were be
low the January-March quarter last
year, when collections aggregated
Leading the upturn last quarter
were receipts from corporate and in
dividual income, capital stock, li
quor, cigarette, gasoline, and auto
mobile levies. Increases of a million
dollars or more were reported in
The biggest puncture in the pic
ture of climbing revenues came in
the agricultural adjustment tax col
umn. These levies produced $40,855,
548 in the first quarter of last year
but, because of invalidation by the
Supreme court, contributed nothing
this year. With the exception of
this item, no decrease of as much
as $1,000,000 was shown for the
quarter this year in any single clas
Included among declines of less
than $1,000,000 were returns from
taxes on wines and cordials, crude
petroleum processed, brewers’ wort
and malt, chewing and smoking to
bacco, and special taxes on brewers
and dealers in malt liquor.
The largest increase in a single
levy was reported for corporation
income taxes, which rose $42,344,139
Lewis Deschler, parliamentarian
for the house of representatives,
predicted possible legal complica
tions when the next congress con
venes. Unless the new house is able
to elect its speaker and other offi
cers at its opening session, January
3, the electoral votes cannot be
counted in time to inaugurate the
next President on January 2.0.
Deschler, whose task is keeping
the house of representatives out of
legal tangles, blames the 20th
(Lame Duck) amendment to the
Constitution for the probable diffi
“It just isn’t a house until it or
ganizes.” he explained, "and some
times it requires several weeks to
elect the officers.
“Next year the house will have
exactly two weeks to organize in
time for inauguration of the Presi
dent," he added.
No More “Old Congresses”
The famous “lame duck" sessions
of the old cohgress were eliminated
by the 20th amendment. They ran
from December until March 4. The
old congress was able, therefore, to
count the electoral votes. Now the
new congress must elect officers at
its opening session so as to be able
to count the electoral votes the next
day, as required by law.
Deschler said that the presence of
a third party in the presidential elec
tion campaign always complicated
the qualifying of the winning can
For instance. If a third party cap
tured a single state and the other
electoral votes were about evenly di
vided between the two major
parties, it might turn out that nei
ther of the big parties had a majori
ty of all the electoral votes. In that
case, the election would be decided
by the house. If the delay occurred,
the President might not be chosen
before January 20, the day he must
Justice department officials are
investigating "hundreds and hun
dreds" of cases in which firms,
seeking government contracts for
supplying construction material,
submitted identical bids.
Assistant Attorney General John
Dickinson, head of the Justice de
partment’s anti-trust department, is
responsible for the investigation of
bids which might be collusive. He
assigned three attorneys to the job.
“Our investigations are simply
fact-finding. We are not doing detec
tive work," he said.
President Roosevelt suggested last
June that if federal agencies re
ceived identical bids they should
be turned over to the Justice de
partment for investigation. The sug
gestion, made to the ten regular
departments and twelve independ
ent offices, brought a flood of re
ports to Dickinson’s office.
Steel and Cable Bids
One case involved a group of man
ufacturers and jobbers to supply
steel tubing for the Grand Cculee
dam reclamation project in Wash
ington state. Another case concerned
bids for copper cable and wire for
a transmission line on the North
Platte project in Nebraska.
“In each of these cases.” Secre
tary Ickes said, “while most of the
bids were identical, at least one
bidder submitted different and lower
figures and contracts are being
The North Platte contract was
awarded to the Nehring Electrical
works of De Kalb, III., on a low bid
of $16,487.69. Of the fourteen bids
received on the job, seven offered
the goods at a delivered cost price
of $16,501.51, and two others had
identical bids of $16,501.16.
Ten bids were received for the
steel tubing on the Grand Coulee
dam project, and seven were iden
tical with a delivered cost of
Dickinson and his aids are ex
! pected to complete their investiga
tion by early December. A report
will be made to the attorney gen
eral, and it is understood that the
attorney general will then submit
recommendations to the President.
Ask Higher Rates
Proposals for increases in per
manent freight rates were filed with
the Interstate Commerce commis
sion by the nation's railroads to
compensate to some extent for the
loss of $115,000,000 in revenue when
emergency surcharges expire at the
end of the year.
They said the proposed changes
covering virtually the entire rate
structure would increase some rates
and reduce others, but on the whole
would result in a "somewhat lower
level of charges than that now in
The commission was not asked to
approve the changed rates, but to
permit the filing of the rate tariffs
for consideration as a whole instead
of having to present hundreds of
In submitting the proposed in
creases, the roads told the com
mission they were confronted with
a situation demanding “immediate
steps to prevent a substantial de
■rease in their revenues.”
"For the first eight months of
1936,” the petition said, "the net
income of class one railroads was
approximately $16,400,000. During
the same period the emergency
charges authorized by the commis
sion produced revenues to the class
one railroads of $77,000,000.
"Without the emergency charges,
which will expire December 31, 1936,
in the absence of further orders by
the commission, class one railroads
would have failed to earn by ap
proximately $60,000,000, their fixed
charges for the first eight months of
The petition noted traffic had been
improving but said the roads could
not withstand the loss of revenue
resulting from the elimination of
surcharges without a revision of
base rates. It asserted that the cost
of labor, supplies and material had
Increased over $300,000,000 in the
last two years.
"Even with the proposed rates,
the railroads will still be In dire
need of additional revenues which
are to be obtained, if at all, only
in the event of a very substantial
increase in the present volume of
traffic," the petition said.
Reports reached the Department
of Interior that Great Britain is
watching with interest the American
colonization of Jarvis island, poten
tial air base in the south Pacific.
Richard B. Plack, Interior depart
ment representative at Honolulu,
said that Hawaiian youths serving as
American colonists on Jarvis report
ed that an unidentified British war
ship remained near the island for a
whole day last month. The ship then
sailed away without attempting to
put a landing party ashore.
Other information led department
officials to believe the vessel was the
cruiser Wellington, recently report
ed in the nearby south Pacific.
The visit of the warship to Jarvis
followed a London report that Great
Britain recently reasserted its sov
ereignty over thj Phoenix islands, a
group of eight with a population of
about sixty, lying about 200 miles
south of Jarvis.
Informal notice that Great Britain
was not prepared to relinquish all
claims to sovereignty over Jarvis
and possibly Howland and Baker
island was given earlier this year
in the British parliament by J. H.
Thomas, then British colonial min
Jarvis, a mere sandbar nearly
1,000 miles south of Honolulu, is
strategically situated on a potential
United States-Hawaii-New Zealand
air route. The government formally
asserted American sovereignty over
it and Howland and Baker islands,
1,000 miles to the west, in 1935.
O-— WNU Service.
Jackknife Important Tool
Up to a few years ago the jack
knife was one of the most important
tools of the home, especially in the
country. We might say, notes a
writer in the Montreal Herald, that
our great-grandfathers lived in a
wooden age, for a great many of
the everyday utensils were made of
wood, as metal articles were scarce.
Therefore, whittling was an art with
the boys of those times, and it was
in winter that much of this whit
tling was done. The knife was for
making things that were of some
value or use, and not merely for
passing away the time.
Kills Upholstered F'urniture
Either hair or moss is usod as
filler for upholstered furniture. The
best grade of hair is that of horse
tail and horse mane mixed. Moss
in order to be a good filler must
be thoroughly cleaned and picked
by a picking machine. This rids
it of sticks and leaves which are
ordinarily very prevalent in moss
Sungmas of Tibet
Crowds Witness Trance of Tibetan Sungma.
Preparixl by National Oeotrraphlr Society.
Waahlnifton. D. C.-—WNU Service.
ANCIENT Greece had her ora
cle of Delphi; Tibet has her
Sungmas, men believed to
have similar powers. Sung
mas are, to the Tibetans, neither
sorcerers nor incarnations, but the
abodes of malignant spirits, or spi
rits, of demonized heroes who, sub
dued by saintly lamas or high in
carnations, have become the protec
tors of religion.
These roving demon spirits, obed
ient to the spells cast over them,
are said to select either a lama or
a layman as their abode during the
lifetime of the person thus selected.
Distinct from incaranations, they
manifest themselves involuntarily as
well as voluntarily in their chosen
Any lamasery with a claim to
importance has its oracle, though
some of the supposed Sungmas are
impostors who work themselves into
frenzy merely for pecuniary gain.
Every Sungma has his fee, the
amount depending on the importance
of his demon spirit, and the wealth
of the person who seeks the augury.
Sometimes as much as 1,000 tankas
($100 or more) will be exacted.
Whether oral or written, the
replies the Sungmas give to ques
tions have true Delphic vagueness
and ambiguity. They confine them
selves mainly to advice concerning
the performance of meritorious
deeds to counteract evil influences or
ward off calamities. The questions
usually are written on slips of paper
and handed to the Sungma, who,
without looking at them, holds them
above his head and “answers” them
with incredible rapidity.
Five Chief Ones In Lhasa.
Although there are many Sung
mas, genuine or pretending,
throughout Tibet, the five of real
importance reside in Lhasa. One of
them, recognized as the state oracle,
Na chung, is consulted by the Dalai
These oracles play an important
role in the selection of high incar
nations, or in the search for the in
carnation of a deceased Dalai Lama.
It was several years ago at the
lamasery of Yungning in northwest
ern Yunnan that a stall writer of
the National Geographic Magazine
learned of the existence of these
mysterious Sungmas. The abbot told
him that the famous Balung chu dje,
one of the Sungmas of Lhasa, was
to perform in Yungning at the Feast
of the Lights on the day of commem
oration of the death of Tsong K’apa*
founder of the Yellow lama church.
The human abode, or chu dje, of
Sungma Balung chu dje, was the
person of a Chungticn lama, a native
of the Tongwa (Tibetan) tribe, the
son of a Tongwa bandit chief of
northwest Yunnan. This “possessed”
lama, who had been residing in
Lhasa for several years, had stopped
at Yungning on his way to visit his
birthplace in Chungtien. He is said
to be the abode of the powerful
There are several bungmas who
are supposed to be the chu dje of
Chechin. Of these the most impor
tant is a lama called Betin Konser
chu dje from the name of Chechin’s
house on the market square of
Lhasa; and the second in rank is
the one the writer saw perform in
Yungning—Balung chu dje, named
after another residence o: Chechin.
As their names indicate, they are
considered “houses” of Chechin.
Both Balung chu dje and Betin
Konser chu dje, before going into
a trance; that is. before Chechin
takes possession of them, don the
robes of a Sungma—elaborately de
corated embroidered garments often
mode of gold brocade, the gift of
some devout worshiper. Thus ar
rayed, they trke their seats in for
eign fashion—not cross-legged—on
ornate chairs, usually near the en
trance within the main temple of
Invoking the Spirit.
Some of tin lamas in attendance
begin to chant the classic of Che
chin, beseeching the spirit to take
possession of his chu dje; while some
ring bells or blow conch shells; and
others, carrying incense turners,
walk around the bowed figure of
the waiting Sungma, wafting the
fragrant smoke of juniper twigs as
offering to Chechin.
Such was the beginning of the
performance in which the writer had
the rare experience of watching
Sugma Balung chu dje.
The Sungma sat motionless on the
throne in the somber chanting hall,
his face buried in his hands, breath
ing the fragrant juniper smoke,
while the deep, low tones of the
chanting lamas, punctuated by bell
ringing and the blowing of conch
shells, lent mystery to the whole
scene. A tall, curiously decorated
and plumed iron hat. weighing about
50 pounds, was placed beside him.
Soon the Sungma began to accom
pany the lamas in their mumbling
prayers, while the incense went the
round, and the silent audience
awaited the spirit of Chechin. Sud
denly sonorous blasts of large
trumpets and deafening clash of
cymbals burst forth, and the
Sungma moved uneasily in his seat.
An Extraordinary Performance.
A deep, gargling sound escaped
him, and his hands clasped his
throat. The attending lama, a
brother of Balung, now lifted the
huge hat upon the Sungma’s head
and tied it (Irmly under the chin. By
this time the performer was fully
possessed by the spirit. The gargling
sound is believed to be a sure sign
of the presence of Chechin, who,
the classic relates, died by suffocat
ing himself with a kattak, a silk
Balling still sat dreaming for a
while; then all at once his body
began to sway and his legs to shake.
Frantically he threw himself back
ward while lamas held him and
tried to balance him. He spat and
groaned; blood oozed from his
mouth and nostrils; his face became
purple—inflated to such an extent
that the leather chin strap burst.
He took a sword handed to him,
a strong Mongolian steel blade. In
the twinkling of an eye he twisted
it with his naked hands into several
loops and knots!
The Sungma tossed the 50-pound
hat above his head; adjusted it
again, meanwhile puffing like a
steam engine. The perspiration run
ning down his face mingled with
the blood which oozed from his nose
The attending lamas wiped his
face, and tried to comfort him. A
lama now stood in front of him with
a round silver platter on which re
posed an offering, a triangular pyr
amid of tsamba, or barley-flour,
dough. This the lama held to the
Sungma’s face, so that his forehead
touched it. The lamas changed the
tune and tempo of their chant.
Still shaking, the possessed Sung
ma took a handful of rice, and threw
it violently into the crowd. At this
point the abbot of the monastery
approached, bowing and kowtowing,
only to be beaten severely on the
back with the flat of a sword wielded
with merciless fury by the Sungma.
Fear spread among the crowd; the
abbot fled; the Sungma continued to
shake from head to foot with un
Now was the time for worshipers
to receive Chechin’s blessing. A reg
ular fight ensued as the lamas of
the monastery, each carrying a
small silk scarf (kattak) as offering,
thronged forward. Each lama tried
to get to the Sungma to place a kat
tak on his shaking knees and re
ceive the blessing of a blow, a puff
of breath from his distorted mouth,
or a gentle laying on of his hands.
Forward they surged, eager to
reach the Sungma before the spirit
of Chechin should leave his body.
A few managed to receive the bless
ing, while attending lamas, laying
on unsparingly with birch whips,
kept off the eager mob.
Three More Seizures.
All at once the Sungma, puflflng
and blowing, threw himself back
ward exhausted and lay like a life
less form for a few minutes. The
spirit of Chechin had flown, none
When Bailing rose, he was weep
ing and whining. His garments now
were adjusted, and a different head
gear, the sort worn by minor Sung
mas, was placed upon his head.
Three of the underlings of Chechin
were to manifest themselves in this
Seizure was not long in coming.
Almost immediately the afflicted
man leaned forward and began to
shake. The lamas near him handed
him bow and arrows and a flagstaff.
With outstretched arms he stood
erect, spat, puffed, and blew.
The lamas again rushed to re
ceive his blessing. The more
privileged the abbot and the Liv
ing Buddha of Yungning, came first;
then the mob. The latter were less
fortunate, for only two had received
the blessing when the shaking
stopped and the Sungma again threw
himself backward, groaning.
He rested thus for only a minute;
then rose and with a terrific thump
fell back upon his chair, shaking like
an epileptic. In this state he received
the homage of the throng.
Wives, Know Yourselves!—
Accurate Analysis Will Do Much to
Overcome Difficulty in Wedded Life
SPEAKING on the question of
trial marriages, a well known
writer said, “There should be no
need for trial when two people
know their own abilities and have
measured themselves accurately.
Two people who understand them
selves will never, I believe, have
any difficulty living happily to
gether after marriage.”
That is a new slant on the ques
tion of success in marriage, sup
plements a woman writer of na
tional fame. Not “Know my hus
band” — or “wife,” but “know
And, come to think of it, isn’t
most of the discontent and dissat
isfaction in marriage traceable to
ideas of ourselves—that may be
misconceptions, no less than our
illusions about the other person?
How many women’s dissatisfac
tion with their husband has as its
source the thought of all they gave
up to marry him, all they “might
have had” if they had married a
certain other man?
How many women’s discontent
with the role of wife and mother
springs from the thought of how
much more fascinating pastimes
they might have had if they had
followed that career?
How many girl’s impossible ex
pectations of a fulltime lover and
Prince Charming originates in an
exaggerated notion of their own
devastating beauty and charm?
If all discontented wives would
look deeply unto themselves,
measure themselves, stop fooling
themselves, many might discover
that the other man they might
have married is a self-nurtured
illusion; that the career of their
dreams is not a soft snap and a
joy forever; but a grueling, ex
hausting job which might have
worn them out if they had quali
fied for' it, which they probably
would have been unable to do;
that they themselves are neither
devastating beauties nor always
charming, but women who are
frequently disappointing and diffi
cult to live with. They might dis
cover and admit to themselves
that they are greatly in debt to
their husbands for many things
that make life easier and better
and more worthwhile—that they
would not get along so well with
Then they might think more of
doing their part of trying to make
those husbands happy. And that
effort on the part of one must in
evitably go a long way toward a
mutually happy and successful
© Bell Syndicate.—VVNU Service.
Value of Persuasion
■f J IOLENCE ever defeats its
* own ends. Where you can
not drive you can always per
suade. A gentle word, a kind
look, a good-natured smile can
work wonders and accomplish
miracles. There is a secret
pride in every human heart
that revolts at tyranny. You
may order and drive an in
dividual, but you cannot make
him respect you.—Hazlitt.
The true past departs not.
Nothing that was worthy in
the past departs—no truth or
goodness realized by man ever
dies, or can die.—T. Carlyle.
Building and Rebuilding
Rebuilding a ruined house or a
ruined career is a much more
difficult matter than building
new. It takes more courage,
more skill and more ability. But
it is being done every day.
. . the record of m
exhioitor who has asei
many brands bet who now
flses CLABBER GIRL,
Vitamin B in Quaker Oats Promotes Good
Appetite, Healthy Nerves and System
• Doctors warn against a shortage of Vitamin B in diets
of either youngsters or adults. j- J
So give the whole family a Quaker Oats breakfast every ?
day. It supplies plenty of the wonderful 3-purpose Vitamin
to combat nervousness, constipation, and poor appetite ST
due to lack of Vitamin B. sS
Order a package of Quaker Oats by name from your p/;
grocer today. Ig
| IM ST/IJ. «|
you For that
JO? A* foREBT
TIME, YOU J
^ KNOW?J /
YOU SAID BEFORE/
SAY 'YES'OR •NO',
CAN'T YOU, AND
BE done with
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HE KNOWS HE
* If DOESN'T NEED ANY
-v V MORE MEN — HE'S
M GOT TWO RA NGERS
44- NOW FOR EVERY /
WELL, IM 1
VOtNG ALL I
I CAM FOR I
VOU, SOB — f
you'LL JUST l
HAVE To BE k
r HOW CAN I BE
PATIENT WHEN MV
HEAD ACHES ALL THE
TIME ? I HAVEN'T "
A GOOD NIGHTS SLEEP
w FOfZ A WEEK ‘
HIS HEAD WOULD
k4*PKHC FVEK TRIED ,
To THINK! BUT
mSrZm HP'S BEEN SOUND ,
l|gV§:*&ASlE'EP FoK YEARS'
SCUNt> LIKE YOU
THIS JOS/ BOB —
AW-HE SAID JVE '
GOT COFFEE- NERVES !
-TOLD ME TO CUT OUT
COFFEE AND SWITCH
TO PoSTUM TOR r—
So DAYS’-SWHAT Jli
£ WHAT HAPPENED
(jmfTo THE RULES
THE YEAR THEY .
WELL, IF YOU ^5
WANT To PE A
FOREST RANGER, f1
Pop, YOU'D k
BETTER VO AS h‘
THE DOCTOR , M;
ADVISED - THEN L
SEE ME AGAIN Nk
[ ABOUT THAT Ka”
OH, ALL RIGHT— bj
I 'LL TRY IT! J CAN'T &
FEEL ANY /*vjkY*r4*
>/ /F^CVVSBSl IF 1
|MV «£'$ SWITCHING
4m TO PoSTUM — IT'S
||C> MB FOR THE .
30 PAYS LATER J
[' j'm starting you
OUT IN THE TOUGHEST.
RANGE ON THE J
RESERVE, BOB f I f3*
KNOW YOU'LL ,t'<.
MAKE GOOD IjpTr*
—i i.-’v i.'.'.'..... ,rr^4'Ttffiidm
^ THANKS FOR
I THE CHANCE,
I CHIEF l I FEEL .
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