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About The frontier. (O'Neill City, Holt County, Neb.) 1880-1965 | View Entire Issue (Oct. 10, 1935)
jty Carter Field ^
Washington.—Typical of the sort
•f thing that has made the Repub
lican party in New York state. Im
potent since the passing of Bill
Barnes from its leadership Is the
proposal of Charles Dewey Hllles to
throw the Empire state delegation
to Bertrand H. Snell.
Most Republicans ngree thnt
Snell would make an excellent
President. He has force, character,
and ability. He stays put. He
takes advice, but without ever yield
ing one inch on deep convictions, or
.yielding to temporary expediency.
Never a back-slapper, never a user
of weasel words, he nevertheless
fought his way up through thp
house of representatives, and won
the G. O. P. nomination for speak
ershlp of thnt body against the
whole strength of the Hoover ad
ministration. And his rather thin
following since 1032 hns never re
gretted Its choice.
But the whole point Is that no
one, least of all Mr. Hllles, who
proposes to commit the New York
delegation to Snell, has the slight
est Idea that the Repullcnn conven
tlon will nominate the able New
York representative. The whole
purpose of giving this big dele
gation to Snell Is to hold It away
from Herbert Hoover, to hold It
away from Senator Borah—even to
hold It away from Colonel Knox—
for the purpose of permitting an
other smoke-filled room nomination
reminiscent of 1020.
It is good old Republican tra
dition—Democratic tradition, too,
for thnt matter, that a group of
old party wheel-horses can sit
around In a room and do much bet
ter in picking a candidate than can
either the voters In primaries or
delegates In an untrnmmeled con
vention. In fact, there la so much
history to back It up that there
seems to be some logic In the con
But it Is a tradition which would
not have a chance this time If it
were not for one thing—fear thnt
Herbert Hoover will win the nom
ination by pure force of lethargy.
Hllles also wants to head off Borah.
He was distinctly annoyed at the
recent poll of the country and
other leaders by Robert II. Lucns,
which showed such surprising
strength for the Idaho senator.
It's an Old Feud
This feud goes back to the days
when William Howard Taft wns
President, and Hllles was his sec
retary. Borah had frequently re
marked that Taft and Hllles
wrecked the party. He still thinks
so and Hllles knows It Hllles
would not be consulted much If
Bornh were in the White House.
He knows thnt, too.
Another phase of the’ situation
is that a great mnny New York
Republicans would prefer the nom
ination of former Senator James
W. Wadsworth, now a member of
the house. Wadsworth, like Snell,
has never equivocated about the
New Deal. When It looked ns
though opposing Roosevelt’s pro
gram was little short of political
suicide, Wadsworth always backed
Snell In opposing It, not just by his
vote, but by vigorous denunciation
—in sharp contrast with the num
ber of other Republicans who grace
fully yielded to the storm.
It so happens thnt neither one
of these outstanding New Yorkers
Is of the boss type. Else the story
of the New York Republican fiasco
in the last 15 yenrs might be very
After the passing of Barnes, when
New York had a Republican gov
ernor, Whitman, and two Republic
an senators, Calder and Wadsworth,
there wns a considerable O. O. P.
faction which wanted Wadsworth
to be boss In Barnes’ place. An
other faction backed Calder. Cold
er wanted the job, Wadsworth
didn’t He didn’t want to be both
ered with it But while Calder
went after it the stronger group,
including Snell, bncked Wadsworth.
Which resulted in there being no
Republican boss In New York at all.
Woman suffrage and prohibition
divided the leaderless party. Cold
er was defeated for re-election by
Doctor Copeland, and In 102(1 Boh
Wagner defeated Wadsworth. Then
along came Roosevelt and Farley
to build up the upstate Democratic
organisation In the country sec
tions, ns A1 Smith had already built
it up In the cities.
And now there Is a new compli
cation. It looks ns though a new
schism was about to divide the New
What substitute for AAA—farm
benefits and processing taxes—can
the opposition to the New Deal of
That problem Is causing furrowed
brows among wonld-be candidates
on the Republican ticket against
Franklin D. Roosevelt next year.
It is also worrying the wheel-horses
of the party—those that are left—
the men who know they can never
themselves carry the standards, but
who like tremendously to feel that
they are powers behind the throne.
Such men, for example, as J. Henry
Rorahack of Connecticut—the last
of the old bosses. Such men as
Dave Mulvane of Kansas used to be.
Reliable reports from the farm
belt Indicate that the Republicans
must have some substitute—some
thing that will satisfy the farm
ers—If they are to have a chance
In that part of the country. The re
ports are Interesting for another
reason. They indicate that it will
not be difficult to enlist the farm
ers against the New Deal If they
are convinced they will fare Just
as well without it.
Apparently the farmers are not
at all satisfied that the system,
which Is now paying them hand
some benefits In return for their
crop restrictions, Is sound.
What most of the farmsrs would
really like would be to have all re
strictions on production removed,
nnd then have prices for all crops
guaranteed by the government—
prices that would yield them what
they regard a decent return for their
labor and the use of their land.
Appeal to Farmers
This sounds more uneconomic
than even the present scheme. But
it would appeal Infinitely more to
the fanners, and curiously enough,
It Is almost precisely what was of
fered as a farm plank by For
mer Gov. Frank O. Lowden of Illi
nois, and which wns so tlntly re
jected by Coolldge, Hoover and Mel
lon. In short It amounts to the ex
port debenture, with Its equaliza
tion fee provision. The only differ
ence Is that the equalization fee
part of the scheme does not appeal
much to the farmers. If any par
ticular crop were very large, so
that a heavy percentage of It had
to be sacrificed nt a sharp loss on
export snles, then the equalization
fee might easily deprive the farm
er of that fair price he craves.
But the farmer Is a natural gam
bler. lie has to be. He gambles
on every crop he plants—against
nature. And up to now on the mar
ket price. The farm benefits for
not rnlslng crops are virtually the
first such thing the farmers of
the world have ever had.
Perhaps because of the trace of
gambling which seems to be In every
human being, this Is not the phase
of AAA which nppenls most to him.
Or nt least reports from all over
the country Indicate that It is not.
He wants to gnmble against nature
—ngalnst surpluses of his crop
from other countries competing In
the world market. He wants the
chance of an occasional killing with
fat prices on a big crop on his land,
even though that big price cnn be
occasioned only by crop failures
But while this la what he wants,
he Is not going to give up the se
curity he now has for the first time
In the history of mankind for the
mere privilege of gambling. And he
will not vote that way.
Want Longer Hours
“Why doesn’t the government
work us sixty hours a week and
give us enough to live on?”
Thnt Is the complaint of worker
nfter worker on the famous I’nssn
maquoddy tidal project, Just out
side Kastport, Maine, and close to
beautiful Campobello, where Presi
dent Roosevelt loved to vncntlon
"I work eight hours a dny, five
days a week." one worker told the
writer. “For thnt the government
gives me $11 a week. I have to
pay $10 a week for my hoard and
room, so you see I have to be pret
ty careful with that other dollar.'
"It’s Just crazy,” said a garage
worker, who was Intently listening.
“The government ought to work
these fellows ten hours a day, and
six days a week. Then they would
make some money. They could buy
things. Isn’t thnt whnt we nre sup
posed to be needing?
“Don’t talk to me about the men
needing the time for recreation.
What do they do with their time
off? Two days—they have—and they
lay around the ends of the wharves
and bum cigarettes from us nntlves.
You see, they cnn’t afford to buy
"But modern thought Is thnt a
man ought not to work ns long ns
sixty hours a week,” suggested the
“Sa.v, mister, we used to work
sixty hours n week all the time, and
we got along Just fine,” retorted
the garnge worker.
“But the government wnnts to
take care of ns many men need
ing work ns It cnn with the money
It cnn afford to spend,” persisted
the writer. “Isn’t Mint the best wav
to do It?"
‘ >\ Hi, maybe It would bo better
not to work them sixty hours,” con
ceded the garage man, “hut certain
ly they ought to get $2."> n week.
Why, mister, lots of these chaps
have wives. I know a lot of them
who have three children. What do
you think a man can do for a wife
and three children on $11 a week?
"Cold weather Is coming on. and
these fellows will have to buy a
lot of warm clothes. That dollar a
week over hoard money, for the
single ones, won’t go very far then."
Eastport looks like a boom min
ing town save for one thing—the
money Isn’t Jingling. Men wnlk
around the streets In mackinaws.
High laced boots, sweaters and
heavy fur caps give an Alaskan
note to the picture. Hut there are
no gambling hells. Cheap lunch
rooms abound. They have to be
(Journey In Africa
An East African Landscape.
Prepared by National Geographic Society.
Washington. U. C.—WNU Service.
HICAGO 1* only a little more
than 500 miles from Kansas
— City—“a good day’s run” to
many American motorists and of
fering little change In scenery or
people all the way. But the same
number of miles from Kano, British
Nigeria, In north central Africa, to
N’Gulgml, near Lake Chad, is a
Journey many days long and a con
stantly changing pngeant of little
known tribes and strange country.
There's a thin, white little road
stretching 200 miles north from
Kano across the hard sands to Zln
der, first post In French territory.
From Zlnder caravan trails fan out
into all parts of the Sudan, one
leading straight east to N’Gulgml,
at the northwest corner of Lake
Chad, 22 days by camel from Zin
der, and thence north and ertst of
the lake to Mao, Abeche (Abeshr),
and the Anglo-Egyptlan Sudan.
The eastward trail leads Into the
country of the Tuareg, noted for
the veils worn by the men over the
lower parts of their faces.
The Tuareg, reputedly one of the
most warlike of African tribes, are
thought to be descendants of Ber
bers who were driven southward
into the desert when the Arabs
swept across North Africa In the
Eleventh century, though some au
thorities date their emergence as a
distinct people a good deal farther
back thnn that.
Among the Tuareg.
After the French announced in
181)0 that they owned that part of
Africa, they sent expeditions gal
loping out from time to time to ex
plain things to the Tuareg, and the
Tuarez promptly sent them gallop
ing back with a lance point at the
seat of each man’s breeches. In
course of time the French tired of
this form of playfulnes and sent oOt
big enough expeditions to put a
stop to It.
There are five main tribes, or con
federations, of the Tuareg, and
they occupy In a sketchy manner,
with their camps and flocks, about
1,500,000 square miles In the west
ern Sahara, centering northeast of
Timbuktu. But they ore great
nomads, and small hnnds sometimes
wander as far to the east as the
Wadal (French Ouadal) region of
French Kquatorial Africa.
In the Tuareg country stands
Goure, typical of those French posts
scattered across the southern fringe
of the Sahara—a square-cut crown
of grim clay battlements, often sev
eral acres In extent, rising out of a
mountain of gray sand; always a
native village at the bottom, and a
big natural basin, with several
wells, the village cotton and millet
patches, spreading palms and paw
paw trees, and the fort garden.
The garden Is always the show
place of the post—on the rare occa
sions when there Is someone to
show It to—and no wonder. In a land
where the vegetation Is limited al
most exclusively to thorn trees ex
cept In the basins.
Here In these grim clay outposts
of the white man's authority In the
Sudan may be found one French
man or perhaps two or three, in
command of a corps of native sol
diers. The Isolation Is almost com
plete, except for the passing at rare
intervals of other Frenchmen on
their way to or from more distant
forts. The term of service Is three
years; then a year to recover one's
reason In France, ltut with antelope
and guinea fowl dotting the hills,
and a dozen native prisoners to tend
und Irrigate his garden, the French
ottirer In the Sudan at least doesn't
have to go hungry.
Cuvettes of Lake Chad Region.
Goure is Inhabited mostly by the
Manga, who subsist largely on the
red millet so characteristic of the
Sudan, eating the grain In the form
of couscous, or porridge, and build
ing their circular huts of the stalks.
The cuvette. In which are located
the village and the fort garden. Is
otherwise occupied entirely by mil
let, tobacco, cotton, and vegetable
plantations. In the cuvettes south
of Goure are salt marshes and
sodium carbonate or natron, depos
its which the natives work by prim
itive methods, exporting the prod
ucts to Kano.
Those cuvettes are the most strik
ing topographical features of the
Lake t'hacl Imsln. They are deep
depressions In the sand, ranging in
length from a few hundred foot to
three or four miles, and usually are
oval or circular in shape. The floor,
smooth ami almost level, is fre
quently of that heavy, black soil
|H*culiar to the Sudan and which
Is known to the natives as “firkl."
It Is excellent for cotton, millet
and other crops, but cracks Into
sections with crevasses several
inches across during the dry season
and Is very hard for animals (or
motorcycles!) to travel over. Au
thorities differ as to the origin of
the cuvettes. Some ascribe them
to subterranean infiltration from
Lake Chad. Others say that the
firki soil was originally the floor of
an ancient, much-extended Lake
Chad, buried by the sand and later
uncovered in the cuvettes by ero
Even though the surrounding
dunes be perfectly bare, there are
grass and trees in the cuvettes, the
dum palm being a characteristic
feature of the landscape. Water Is
usually only a few feet, sometimes
only a few inches, below the floor,
and one frequently finds a pool, or
small lake, at the lowest point.
Sometimes the water Is fresh, some
times Impregnated with salt or
sodium carbonate. The salt in this
region Is bitter and acrid, but the
Inhabitants like it.
Plenty of Game and Cattle.
Beyond Goure the route eastward
veers south into the broad, flat val
ley of the Komaduga (a word mean
ing “river”) Yobe, the largest west
ern affluent of Lake Chad.
The country is a paradise for
game. Stately cranes and marabou
storks stand in the shallows and
scoop up fish with their bills.
Flocks of blue herons flap out of
the trees and sail away toward the
sunset, and attending these feath
ered royalties are the smaller va
rieties In squads and battalions.
In this country are villages or
the Kanurl, who are cattle-raisers.
The main body of the Kanurl In
habit Bornu province, southwest of
Lake Chad and the Komaduga
Yobe. They are desert people who
came south long ago and mixed with
the negro tribes of Bornu, and the
name “Beriberi" (Berber?), given
them by their neighbors, the Ilausa,
possibly indicates that they Were
once much lighter-skinned than at
present. During part of the Six
teenth century their empire was
known as one of the most powerful
in central Africa, but their political
power and talent have waned.
Beyond, at N’Guigmi a fort
crowns a high sand dune, and at
the base is a Kanembu village of
tall reed huts shaped like inverted
Ice-cream cones, each compound
surrounded by a fence, also of
reeds. From N’Guigmi there is a
well-traveled caruvan route north
to the oases of Agndem, Bilma, and
Kaouar, and the inhabitants of the
town mnke a living by trade, cotton
and millet culture, and the working
of salt and natron deposits. A few
are cattle-raisers. The women wear
big silver earrings and do their
hair up with liquid butter, or ghee.
Lake Chad Covered by Plants.
Nearby is huge Lake Chad. It
could almost be said of Lake Chad
that it has no shore line. One can
follow its edge many miles without
a sight of open water. The whole
lake may be only three inches deep
for all that can be seen of it.
In fact, it probably would be nec
essary to wade out a good long dis
tance In order to see anything dif
ferent. For the Urst 10 or 15 miles
there is nothing but a continuation
of this vast wilderness of wild mil
let and water plants, growing six
feet high in three to 20 Inches of
water. Then there is a mysterious
labyrinth of swampy little islands
Most of the islands In the lake
are inhabited by a curious people
called the Buduma. And they are
Just as isolated from the rest of
the world as if they lived on an
other planet. They go paddling
about that mysterious little uni
verse astride their “water horses,"
catching fish, snaring water-fowl,
and pirating their neighbors, and
they have neither knowledge nor
curiosity regarding what goes on
outside their swamps and Islands.
The Buduma are thought by
some to be a remnant of the an
cient Kanembu, who took refuge
In Lake Chad. They live in vil
lages of carelessly constructed reed
huts and have little culture worth
Their “water horse” la mereTy a
log of the nmhash (ambaelt) tree,
which grows In profusion on the
Islands of Lake Chad and Is almost
ns light as cork.
Some of the islanders also lash
bundles of reeds together to make
canoes and barges of considerable
Criminals have been known to ob
literate their tell-tale fingerprints by
means of surgical operations, and
they have taken a leaf from the
ueauty specialists by having their
faces lifted. But an American doc
tor has now perfected a method in
which the veins covering the whites
>f the eyes take the place of the fin
It has been proved that these
“retinal patterns" are as Individual
to each person as fingerprint pat
terns. They can be easily photo
graphed by an Instrument now ex
tensively used by eye specialists, and
a system has been completed for
classifying these eye-prints.
People who never “have a good
time” are pretty severe on those who
“Wasn’t I good and glad to discover it!”
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