The frontier. (O'Neill City, Holt County, Neb.) 1880-1965, August 08, 1935, Image 2
Marvelous Life Is Led by the Oyster Changes From Male to Fe male and Back Again. London. — The curator of the aquarium at the London zoo is astonished to find how little peo ple know about that luscious bi valve, the oyster. So with the aid of Dqctor Orton, head of the Brit lah government survey at Plym outh, he writes a romantic blngra phy In the Observer of London: ‘The oyster starts Its life as a free-swimming organism, keeping Itself afloat and moving In the wa ter for about a fortnight by means of the cilia, Its falry-llke paddles. In energetic motion. Gradually Its developing shell becomes heavier, the weight becomes too much even for Its moat tremendous efforts, and It sinks to the bottom or until It touches some solid object “On Its luck, fo“ one can de scribe It -!n no other fashion, at this stage depends Its future exist ence. Landing on mud or soft sand, Its doom Is scaled and many millions of oysters In this fashion perish annually. American Experts' Ways. “For cheapness and for ease of detachment of the developing oys ters the American experts have lately used the rectangular card board egg holders from egg boxes similarly coated with lime and sand. “Once settled the oyster has lit erally nothing to do but eat and grow. Its one occupation In life Is to strain gallon after gallon of water through Its filtering mech anism, which retains the minute food organisms and passes them on into the mouth of the animal. “Its one protection against Its enemies Is Its hard shell and the ability to keep the two valves firm ly closed by the adductor muscle. Crabs, however, can break It open. Starfish may either pull the shell apart, or by means of a convenient arrangement, when the oyster Is too big and strong for this opera tion, and equally too big to swal low, they may evert the stomach and engulf the unfortunate oyster, until at last, compelled to open Its shells for fresh supplies of oxygen, it Is attacked, weakened, and final ly destroyed by the digestive Juices. “In Its second summer the oys ter reaches maturity, and It Is with the Investigation of this period of Its life that Doctor Orton has been chiefly associated. The oyster Is not a hermaphrodite, nor Is It pro pagated by division. It Is bisexual; but any one oyster does not belong to one sex throughout its life. Transformation of !>#x. “At first maturity the oyster functions as a male. Wlthlir six weeks of that time It may be a female carrying a full complement of developing embryos. When these last are ready for the free swim ming stage they are discharged into the water, and the parent, Its duty done, again becomes a male, and goes Into a resting stage from which It will not emerge until the following summer, or, possibly, a year later than that, when the cycle Is again repeated. “Unlike the eggs of most fish, «S=== -- -w Lightning Bolt Restores Use of Paralyzed Legs Novara, Italy.—Lightning which two years ago killed the wife and son of a fortune teller, Giacomo Bolsson, recently restored to him the use of his legs, paralyzed for years. Bolsson was returning to Novara from Valesla Valley In his wheel chair, pulled by his faithful dog, when a thunderstorm broke. He •ought shelter under a great tree, which was shattered by lightning. The dog was killed and Bolsson knocked out of his chair. When he tried to rise, he found the full use of his limbs had returned. | the eggs of the oyster are fer tilized within the body of the par ent, where they are retained until the developing embryos, of which there may be a million or more, have actually reached the form of small oysters. They are not, how ever, Immediately extruded Into the water, but first spend an Inter mediate existence In the mantle cavity of the parent, where they may continue to develop actually In water, but under fully protected conditions. "At first, unless examined under the microscope, they resemble a milky fluid, and to those in the trade the oyster Is then known as •white sick.’ As the shell develops, the mass becomes gray, and then dark, when the parent oyster Is described as ‘black sltk.’ At the end of this stage the young oys ters are literally blown into the water, thereafter to fend for them selves.” Scientist Captures Free Electricity New York. — A scientist’s dream—harnessing sunlight as a source of electricity—has come true. “Free electricity," drawn from sunlight, lit an electric bulb! Dr. Colin G. Fink, professor of electro-chemistry at Colum bia university, showed how his latest development, the “sun con verter cell” had tripled the amount of electricity he could gather from the sun’s rays. Doctor Fink placed bis cell on a window sill. Attached to a terminal of the apparatus was an ordinary bulb and a galvano meter — for measuring the strength of the current He pulled up a shade, allow ing the light to strike the cell. The sensitive galvanometer Im mediately noted a flow of elec tricity. A moment or two passed. Then the filament wire In the bulb began to glow. Doctor Fink said he can now collect only 1 per cent of the solar radiation, but hopes to do better Paris Seeking Napoleon's Eaglet - « Body of Emperor’s Son May Return to France. Vienna.—Prince Bonaparte, head of the dethroned French dynasty, has renewed his negotiations with Archduke Otto of Hapsburg, the Austrian pretender, and with Aus trian authorities In hopes of has tening "homecoming” of the Eag let. The embalmed body of the "Eag let," son of Napoleon I, will be transferred from the Capuchin Cat acombs, from the company of his Hapsburg relatives, to the Dome of Invalbles In Paris, to the side of his great father, If the negotiations are successful. This wish of the Bonapartlsts was refused In 1932 by the Repub lican government of Austria. The present government, which has strong monarchlal leanings, may raise no objections If the Haps burgs are willing to deliver up the corpse of the Eaglet to the Bona ORCHID SILK NET By CHER1E NICHOLAS Here is an adorable midsummer night party frock. Tiers of ruffles form the skirt of this charming gown which Is made of orchid silk net. Anemones that shade from orchid to deep purple are grouped Into a lovely corsage bouquet. This exquisite model Is a new Maln bocher creation, fresh from Purls. It couldn’t be prettier If It tried. partists, whom they fought so des perately a century ago. Three years ago the hundredth anniversary of the death of the Eaglet was celebrated by France. Next year the one hundred and twenty-fifth anniversary of his birth will be observed. The Eaglet, who was made king of Rome w'hen he was born In Paris, died as the duke of Relch stadt at the age of twenty-one In the Vienna castle of Schoenbrunn. After the fall of Napoleon, his son was deprived of everything that might remind him of his fa ther. He died of consumption, accord ing to the official' announcements. It was popular belief, however, that the young prince was poisoned by Prince Metternich, Austrian chan cel lor. Chinese Racial Traits Studied in California San Francisco.—The big Chinese colony here, lurgest in the world outside of China, Is being turned Into a great experimental labora tory. Most of young China here is being measured and photographed to determine If America changes Chinese characteristics. Parents of 3,000 school children are to be ex amined later. Already changes nave been noted In physical stature and cranial fea tures. Heads of American-born Chi nese are found to be larger, but growth of their bodies slower than their Chlnn-born brothers and sis ters. The work Is part of the most ex tensive anthropological tests ever made on the Chinese people. It Is the Idea of twenty-six-year old Sam uel D. Lee, Chinese graduate of Po mona, and Is being carried on as an emergency relief project. Octopus Influx Is New Menace for Fishermen San Francisco.—An octupus wave from the eoust of Mexico Is giving northern California shallow water fishermen plenty of thrills and background for real “fish stories.’’ Several fishermen, particularly those seeking crabs under crevices and backwashes, have been seized and have been saved only by friends who chopped off the ten tacles of the devil fish. The visitation, said Dr. Alvin Seal, director of Stelnhart aquar ium here, Is due to a sudden shift In current from the Mexican coast, the usual range of the fish. Two species are In the migration —one small, not more than 14 Inches across the arms, and the other large, measuring ns long as 15 feet. Skyscrapers May Give Way to Oil Wells *~n ..——-» Oklahoma Clty’a new zone law permits oil wells to ne drilled in the heart of the hoslness district as shown here. The day may come when tall buildings are tom down to make room for the skeleton like towers. V SEENand HEARD around t/>e c NATIONAL CAPITAL! By Carter Field im FAMOUS WASHINGTON CORRESPONDENT j Washington.—Most of the talk about the possibility of defeating Franklin D. Itoosevelt next year, which still seems a most unlikely event, but Is being discussed wher ever politicians congregate, seems to hinge on the possibility of either a conservative Democratic bolt, or of a fusion ticket—a combination of Republicans with conservative Dem ocrats. Anything can happen, hut third tickets are very difficult to start, and fusions next to Impossible to get going. Of the two, the fusion would seern to have the most prom ise of success, but by the same token is less likely to happen. More effective than either is sim ply a wholesale but unofficial bolt of party leaders. That Is what hap pened to the Democrats when Al fred E. Smith was nominated in 1928, and when prohibition and the religious Issue resulted in a con siderable fraction of the Democracy of many states either staying home on election day, or going all the way and voting the Republican ticket. Contrasted with the La Follette third party four years earlier, this was tremendous in Its effects. But for the present purposes it is inter esting to look hack at how the La Follette third party in 1924 worked inversely to any conceivable hopes of its backers. It will be recalled that La Fol lette carried one state, Wisconsin. That is all his party figured, so far as the electoral vote tabulation showed. But the fact that the La Follette party was In the race changed a great many electoral votes. The point worth considering Is that in every ease the effect was to drive electoral votes to the Re publican nominee, instead of to the Democratic nominee. This was because the country was prosperous, and was afraid of any element of uncertainty being Injected. Widespread polls taken by various independent agencies, par ticularly the Literary Digest, showed early in the campaign, that there was a possibility La Follette might carry a number of states. For ex ample. tills poll showed in Septem ber that La Follette was very close to Coolldge in California. Scared Democrats This resulted frightening a grent many Democrats Into voting for Coolldge. They preferred Cool Idge to a period of uncertainty, with the house of representatives fight ing to elect some one President. If present convictions are not changed, a great many conserva tive Democrats next year will pre fer almost any situation which might develop to the re-election of ltoosevelt. Just as a great many progressive Republicans will pre fer Roosevelt’s re-election to the success of any Republican candi date. Hence the situation promises to be much more like that of 181)0, when the Palmer and Buckner ticket was put up by the gold Dem ocrats, not with any thought of really electing Palmer, but with the frank object of giving Democrats who would not vote for any Re publican some place to go. The ob ject, therefore, was really to elect McKinley, and It succeeded tremen dously, especially In such border states as Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri. It is rather curious that the most difficult method of attempting to defeat Roosevelt—by a fusion ticket—offers such possibilities this time. There is no strong Repub lican In sight for the nomination, but there is a whole flock of con servative Democrats who would fit well in the picture for a fusion nom ination. Kor example, Senator Byrd of Virginia, Ex-Governor Ely of Massachusetts, > nator Tydings or Ex Governor Ritchie of Maryland, Senator Donahey of Ohio. There are those who think, how ever, that n Republican like Gov ernor Landon of Kansas, or Gov ernor Hoffman of New Jersey, might be all the stronger because they are not so well known nation ally—on the theory that fewer peo ple would vote aganlst them. Santa Claus in Politics Seldom has the power of Santa Claus In politics been so forcibly demonstrated as by the recent sen ate vote on the AAA amendments, one of the chief purposes of which was to freeze the processing taxes beyond the probability of being up set by tiie Supreme court. But this danger is not past, and for a most interesting reason, ex pectancy here is tnat the present processing taxes will be held uncon stitutional by the high court. Legal opinion here Is divided as to wheth er tiie next taxes will pass the test or not. But legal opinion is vir tually united that If it had not been for two factors, the high court would uphold the next taxes. One of these points would have been met If congress, in fixing the taxes, had left out the formula for 'changing them. This formula lias to do with prices paid tiie farmers for commodities. It provides for a change in the processing taxes If and when such prices reach “par ity,” or the amount considered by New Dealers as essentially fair for the farmer. The other would have been met If congress had levied the taxes in one bill, and put ail the other agri cultural provisions in another. These two changes would have made the processing taxes, in the opinion of some able lawyers here, strictly excise levies, and thus well within the clearly defined right of congress to raise money. When the language of a statute is perfectly clear, the Supreme court has held In decision after decision, it is not up to the court to delve into the reasons for the passage of the act— to read the debates and reports ot committee hearings, etc. But the fact that the taxes are Included in an agricultural bill, plus the fact that a formula for chang ing tlie taxes in the event that farm prices of the commodities affected change, brings the processing taxes in the new bill close to the border line. It opens the door to the Su preme court to look into the mo tives for imposing the tax. It proves what every one of course knows, that the tax is not levied for gen eral revenue purposes, but to play a part in bringing about a price change—or to improve the estate of a definite fraction of the popula tion—the farmers. Doubtful Situation This would have been Just as true if congress had left out the formula for changing the taxes, and If It had passed the taxes in a separate bill. But In that case the court would have been almost obliged to follow its normal course, and exam ine merely the text of the bill at tached. In all probability it would not have gone into the allegation, which will be made wdien the pres ent bill is attacked, that the tax is unconstitutional because it is not levied strictly for revenue, but to bring about a specific reform, and In favor of a particular class. But congress did not dare use this simple device for Insuring con stitutionality of the AAA amend ments. Because if there had been a separate tax bill, the sales tax nature of the measure would hava been too glaring. The levies would have stood out as taxing the poor man's necessities—food and cloth ing. This is not a predication that the court will hold the new law uncon stitutional. No one knows tiiat. As a matter of fact, it is an open ques tion, about which there is sliarp division of opinion. It may be that the high court will decide that the processing tax on wheat, or corn and hogs, or cotton, is on all fours, so far as constitutional authority is concerned, with the six cents a package federal tax on cigarettes. Also, that It will ignore the formula for changing the amount of the tax. No one knows, but the fact re mains that the whole situation Is doubtful. Golf Parallel Golfing senators nnd representa tives often chuckle about the mis fortune of a long hitting player who drove the difficult green of a hole on a local course, and then putted out of bounds. It sounds incredible, but it is absolutely true. There were a number of witnesses. That, in the judgment of keen ob servers in Washington, Is what the utility magnates did in their tele graphing campaign to prevent pas sage of the “death sentence.” They have come pretty near to nullify ing all the effects of a remarkable demonstration of the wide spread of the shareholders in public utili ties—a demonstration which caused the house of representatives to vote against the I’resident by a majority of 111. And all because they overdid the last touches. They putted out of bounds! Apparently Genuine In fact, there was a great deal of quiet checking up on writers of these protesting letters and tele grams by the senators and represen tatives. And in the early stages most of the letters and wires ap parently were genuine. Often the writers did not know anything at all about the merits of the con troversy. They wrote because the officers of the corporations in which they held stock asked them to—be cause the officers told them the “death sentence” would alfect the value of'tlieir securities. In this last question the legisla tors were not so much interested. If a number of their constituents believed, rightly or wrongly, that a vote for the "death sentence" was a vote which would take money out of their pockets, that vote might be highly dangerous when election day rolled around. Particularly if the “death sentence” passed, and the value of the stocks Id constituents’ hands did decline. The constituent might never find out the truth about the matter, but he would hold his senator or mem ber of the house responsible, and be very apt to vote against him both in primaries and elections. Copyright—WNU Service Ethiopian Army Captain in Full Dress Uniform. □red by National Geographic 8oclety, aahington. D. C.—WNTJ Service. ' rHIOPIA, a familiar name In the headlines these days, boasts a long and Imposing history. The kings of this ancient empire are traced from Orl of 4478 B. C. to Haile Selassie the First of A. D. 1935—with time out, natural ly, from the date of the Deluge un til the fall of the Tower of Babel. According to tradition the queen of Sheba was an Ethiopian. She may possibly have lived in what we now call Ethiopia, and certainly she in cluded it in her extended domain. Modern Ethiopia Includes more than 350,000 square miles of the rich and productive northeastern African plateau. It is mainly a mountainous region, much broken by deep valleys. Arid, semi-desert country surrounds it on every side. It does not touch the sea, although some Ethiopian feudal chieftains like to grasp a marine telescope as they pose for a formal photograph. In the population there are, per haps, 5,000,000 Christians of the true Ethiopian (Hamitic-Semltlc) type. They are the inheritors of an ancient civilization under whose feudal form of government are es timated to he 7,000,000 Moslems and pagans. The latter are mainly ne groes. The country Is surrounded by Af rican colonial possessions of Gr»*at Britain, France and Italy. As the Ethiopia of Solomon’s time, It prob ably Included all of these adjacent territories, with an Egyptian fron tier, and that part of southwestern Arabia known today as the Yemen nnd Hadhramaut. There is In Ethiopia a very evi dent mixture of Asia and Africa. Some of the blood came from an cient Palestine, some from Arabia, and some from the shores of the Caspian. Authorities do not agree as to the elements in this African melting pot of races. But the Ethi opian claims with pride a strong relation to the Semites. Getting Into Ethiopia. The front door entrance and port to Ethiopia is Djibouti, French Somaliland. The French are com mendably responsible for Djibouti. It Is the base of their 500-mile rail way from the coast directly inland to Addis Ababa, the Ethiopian cap ital. This railway is Ethiopia’s only modern connection with the outside world. Djibouti is, there fore, very Important to Ethiopia. It is headquarters for an Ethiopian consul who gives Intending visitors their visas. There are two kinds of trains now on the efficient but expensive little Franco-Ethiopian railway. On Sunday and Wednesday mornings a train leaves Djibouti to arrive three days later in Addis Ababa. Each Tuesday evening departs the “through express," which does the 500 miles in 36 hours. Passengers can sleep on this “fast" train, not in pullmans, but in adjustable seats. .On the three-day trains sleeping is done at little wayside hotels the two nights en route. The first day of this railway jour ney ends usually at six in the aft ernoon, at Diredawa, the first town of importance after the train en ters Ethiopia. It is on the fringe of a plateau 4,000 feet above sea level and a 200-mile climb from the coast. An interesting side trip from Diredawa is the old Moham medan walled town of Harar, four hours away by rough motor trip or a whole day by mulebaek. Camels, horses, or mules are available as a means of transportation, but the mule is considered the most appro priate for one of actual or apparent high station in life. The second night of the three-day train journey Is passed on the banks of the Awash river, one of the pe culiar streams of the world. At this point it is a swiftly flowing river in a deep canyon. Rising on the Ethiopian plateau, it turns north eastward toward the Red sea, but loses Itself in the Danakii lowlands short of Its natural destination. Awash consists mainly of a small railway yard, a one-story brick building housing a hotel under quasi-Hellenic management, a scat tering of native shacks, and many cats. Food and accommodations are simple and the most essential thing is a good mosquito net. Addis Ababa, the Capital. The train gets under way again the next morning at dawn and rolls through lovely grass and forest lands, where gallop many herds of gazelles and antelope. Occasional ly one sees the dark blur of a rhino breakfasting on the far side of the Awash river canyon. About four o’clock In the afternoon of this third day the sprawling city of Ad dis Ababa is sighted In a forest of blue gum trees, across a rolling, grassy plain. A ride of 20 minutes on mule or horseback, or five minutes by mo tor, takes the arriving traveler to the main part of the city. Addis Ababa has good streets and no “across the railway tracks” quar ter. It has also legations, con sulates, hotels, many American mo torcars, airplanes of sort, and some presentable business buildings. On one of the two principle elevations of the city is the ever-interesting market place. Here once stood the great tree which served for genera tions as a gibbet. The other main elevation Is crowned by the group of buildings which make up the Imperial palace. The most impos ing edifice on this designated “Hll! of the Gebbi” is the Audience Hall of the Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, constructed of stone and given its high-sounding title by order of the late Emperor Menelik. Menelik claimed his title by virtue of his descent from that first Menelik who was born to She ba after her visit to Solomon. Ethiopia claims to be the oldest Christian sovereign state. The teachings of Christ were introduced about A. D. 330 by two shipwrecked Phoenician youths. Resources of the Country. After the professions of priest and soldier, agriculture is the prin cipal occupation In Ethiopia. The country is very fertile, though methods of cultivation are still primitive. Many fine beef cattle are produced, and the people are great meat eaters. They have what might be called a ceremonial cus tom of eating a bit of raw beef as a sort of hors d’oeuvre. In addition to the ordinary kinds of stock, Ethiopian farmers in part* of the country raise civet cats for commercial purposes. From these animals they obtain a liquid musk marketable to French and Ameri can perfumers at $2 an ounce. The chase is also a commercialized in dustry tn Ethiopia, and naturally ivory heads the list of its products. Many an Ethiopian leopard invol untarily contributes his skin to American feminine fashion. As many as 100,000 of these spotted skins have gone to American fur riers In a single year. Also monkey furs are an Item of profitable tradei Where Fine Coffee Is Grown. The Harar district town ant! province, is the center of produc tion of cultivated coffee In Ethi opia. The bean produced is of ex cellent quality and ranks next only to Mocha in world markets. It i$ called “long-berry Mocha” and i» sold to a discriminating clientele In the United States. Although the Harar plantations are descended from seed introduced from the Mocha district In Arabia, Ethiopia is the home of coffee. The tree was found originally by Arab trav elers in the Ethiopian province of Kafa, from which It took its name. Seed was taken from Kafa to Arabia, and thence came back to Harar. According to the Arabs, the cultivation of coffee also spread t4 other parts of the world from the Yemen, in southwestern Aribia. In Kafa and adjoining parts of southwestern Ethiopia may be seen today vast and virgin forests of coffee of the indigenous variety. It necessarily grows without cultiva tion or care and thousands of tons of the harries fall to the ground in i waste each year. The outer fringes of some of these forests are worked by natives in sections not too faf from export trading centers. wherO the market value of coffee is known Egypt buys much of this coffee shipped via Khartoum, in place of former importations of the Brasil lan product. Lions are numerous in the Harar district. They are the fine black maned fellows so alluring to the big-game hunter. Probably other kinds can chew one up just ns thor oughly, bue the Harar fellow is par ticularly respected. When an Ethiopian kills a lion, he has the right to demand a special audience from the emperor during which to declaim and act out the feat Aft erwards he is privileged to wear the mane and skin as part of his war rior dress.