The North Platte semi-weekly tribune. (North Platte, Neb.) 1895-1922, June 18, 1920, Image 2

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Story of the National Convention at Chicago,
the Struggle to Build a Platform and
the Selection of a Ticket.
Wood, Lowden and Johnson, Leaders in the Early Balloting,
Eliminated at the Behest of a Senatorial Coterie
and a Dark Horse Wins the Race.
For President WARREN G. HARD
INQ of Ohio.
For Vice President CALVIN COOL
IDGE of Massachusetts.
There Is the ticket with which the
Republicans hope mid intend to regain
possession of the national government
next fall.
For president, n mnn from the home
mate of many presidents, a statesman
of long experience and solid reputa
tion, who has heen a member of the
United States senate since 1014, a
incmher of the "old guard" who stands
well with the Hepnhlleans who are In
control of the senate.
For vice president, the inventor of
the Hay state, who was virtually un
known to the nation at large until the
strike of Boston policemen and his vig
orous course In Its suppression gave
hltn a vast amount of publicity and
made him the favorite son of Massa
chusetts In tlie balloting for first place
on the ticket.
Theso gentlemen now stand hefore
the electors of the country on a plat
form that Is so broad that It embraces
nearly every topic and Issue of the
day, though there are those who assert
that In some places the planks are
perilously thin. Its builders, how
ever, maintain that there Is no danger
of the candidates falling through the
weak spots, and It may he that, with
seme Judicious straddling and side-stepping,
this will prove true.
8trugglp Over the Platform.
Seldom, If ever, has the choice of
n presidential candidate heen so close
ly connected with the building of the
platform or It might he more exact
to 'say the rejection of a candldute.
For if Hiram Johnson and his sup
porters could have compelled the adop
tion of Just the plank they demanded
on the League of Nations Issue, the
California senator, and he alone, could
with consistency have consented to
before the people standing on the plat
form.' As It was, his threat to bolt the
party caused a long deadlock In the de
liberations of the committee on reso
lutions nnd at Inst forced the adop
tion of a njunk based on the cabled
suggestion of Ellhu Root. That wise
man had gone to Europe, hut kept In
closo touch with the doings In Chi
cago and at the crucial moment his
plan was presented to Johnson, Borah,
McCormlck and the other "Irrcconcll
obles" nnd accepted by them.
. The resolution as finally Incorpo
rated In the platform, and swallowed
by tho convention, almost without a
quiver, completely avoids any pledge to
ratify tho treaty of peace and the
league covennnt with or without reser
vations, strongly Indorses tho action
of the Hcpubllcan senators In that re
gard and promises thut tho party will
work for some kind of International
arrangement for the peaceful adjust
ment of disputes between nations with
out tho sacrltlco of American sov
ereignty. Thus, as will be seen, tho
way Is loft open for an administration
elected on this platform to do almoBt
anything It sees tit In this regard, ex
cept to ratify a treaty and league cov
enant such ns President Wilson
brought homo from Paris.
Wilson's Policies Scored.
For tho rest, the phitform, In brief,
scores President Wilson and the Dem
ocratic administration for their uupre
pnrcdncss for war and for tho equally
unprepared condition of the nation for
tho reception of peace. Denouncing
the autocratic assumption of author
ity by the president, the platform
pledges tho restoration of constitution
al government. Tho Republican con
gress Is prulsed for Its efforts to cope
with tho problems caused by the presi
dent's course.
Tho farmers gained their requested
support for extension of farm loans
and the right to engage In co-operative
marketing and buying.
Tho Industrial plank was tho sub
ject of much discussion. Some of the
committee members, presumably speak
Ing for big business, favored a plonk
for tho prevention of Htrlkes by law.
Governor Allen and others wunted tho
Kansas Industrial court plan Indorsed.
And I'resldent Gompers traveled all
tho way to Chicago to tell the com
mittee what kind of plank the Ameri
can Federation of Labor demanded.
None of theso requests were satlslled,
but tho plunk adopted recognizes tho
Justice of collective bargaining and
"Tho strike, or tho lockout, oh n
means of settling Industrial disputes,
Inflicts such loss and suffering on the
community as to Justify government
Initiative' to reduce Its frequency and
limit Its consequences.
"We deny tho right to strike against
the government ; but the rights and In
terests of all government employees
must he safeguarded by Impartial laws
and tribunals."
On Economy and H. C. of L.
The failure of the administration to
retrench during the post-war period
and the addition of thousands of swi
vel chair warmers are derided and the
party pledges Itself to a policy of
economy and a carefully planned re
adjustment. The need of an execu
tive budget and condemnation of the
presidential veto that defeated this
llnanclal reform was coupled with
caustic characterization of the man
ner In which the president, according
to the Republicans, clings to his war
time powers1. Kovlslon of taxation
also Is demanded.
Coming to the great Issue of the
high cost of living, the committee
drew up a declaration to the effect
that the present conditions are the
hesult of nn Intlotlon of the currency
and of credit which the party pledges
Itself to correct by deflation, the pre
vention of unreasonable profits and
the stimulation of private thrift by
a change in the Income tax law. The
party reaffirmed Its belief In the pro
tective tariff, and pledged the encour
agement of an American merchant ma
rine by the application of the work
man's compensation act and the ex
emption from canal tolls of the mer
chant marine.
Profiteering was condemned, govern
ment ownership of railways opposed,
waterways encouraged nnd the regula
tion of industry and commerce prom-
Mrs. Warren G. Harding.
Isi-d In order to prevent monopolies. R
sumption of trade relations- with every
nation with, which America Is at peace
was pledged. No chnnges were prom
Ised In the existing Immigration laws,
hut the bettering of naturalization
laws was pledged, and tho party went
on record as favoring a policy by
which American women who marry
foreigners shulhnot lose their citizen
ship. The government's authority to
deport and exclude undesirable aliens
was upheld, but asurnnce was given
that the rights of free speech, free
press and freo assembly will not be
What They Said of Mexico.
A largo number of minor1 topics were
handled In tho platform, nnd then
come the nlank on Mexico. It dealt
very severely with President Wilson's
policy nnd pledged that the party will
not recognize any Mexican govern
ment unles tho lives and property of
Americans there are protected. Ar
niepla came next in the list of planks.
Deep sympathy was expressed for the
Armenians, hut the president was
condemned for asking for authority to
accept an Armenian mandate and It
wns added that tho Republican party
was unalterably against the acceptance
of a mondte for any. country In Eu
rope or Asia.
The men who fought In the great
war were assured of the party's deep
gratitude and were promised liberal
legislation for the care of the d's
abled, Infirm and dependents.
Though William Jennings Bryan was
present throughout the entire life of
the convention with tho n vowed pur
pose of persuading the Republicans
to Insert a "dry" plank In their plat
form, he failed possibly because the
timely decision of the Supreme court
seemed to render unneeesary any ex
pllclt declaration. The convention
merely declared that all laws should
be enforced, and let It go at that.
Women and Irish Dlsplenjed.
Two other e'enicnts also were disap
pointed. These were the suffragists
life- ;4 Vidl
Republican Nominees
a fc3 ' J-T-VC - rT" I 1 l I
and the friends of the Irish "republic." I
The former, under the leadership of I
the heads of the woman's party, were
in Chicago In strength and during the
entire week maintained around the
Coliseum a line of pickets hearing
banners that warned the Republicans
that the women demanded the fran
chise and would lie satisfied with no
less. A plnnk was Inserted In the plat
form urging Republican legislatures
thnt have not acted to ratify the suf
frage amendment, but this did not op
pease the ladles. In the Inst few mo
ments of,the last session they dropped
from a balcony u great yellow banner
on which was the statement that they
wanted votes, not planks. As for the
Irish, they, too, made a big demon
stration In Chicago and De Valero, the
president of their "republic" was there
to deliver u speech hefore u great gath
ering. Hut something went wrong with
the plans; and the plnnk which was
tentatively shaped for the platform
suited them so little that It was omit
ted entirely and nothing pnt In Its
plnce. There was n story that this
resolution had been drawn up by Jus
tice Cohnlan of New York In the hope
thnt it would bo unsuitable and that
tho Democrats In San Francisco would
bo enabled to take advantage of the
circumstance. So, though considerable
space has perforce been given to the
platform of the Republican party, It Is
not because It must be considered as
a great or a particularly strong pro
nouncement. Lots of men and wom
en In the party are far from please"
with ninny parts of It, and It must be
. .....x .1 -I. ..H.wl r fit, l
cnmcsNcu uiai mo wim-i hur-u m
nnvoni' who was crazed with enthusi
asm oveu It.
The story of this convention would
be Intensely Interesting If one Could
tell nil the truth about the secret in
fluences Hint governed Its actions. On
the surface It was not a very excit
ing affair, and the enthusiastic out
bursts that characterized some of Its
sessions appeared too often to lie face
tious. For five days the 1 '1,000 dele
gates, alternates, seat-holders and pos
sessors of tickets that allowed them to
stand about' the few open places nnd
hompor.evoryone else gathered faith
fully In the Coliseum, prepared to howl
with glee fiver expected contests nnd
triumphs. But most of 'the time all
they could do wns to cheer for
their favorite on occasion nnd try to
keen up with the strong-lunged
cheer nnd song leader who had heen
brouKht up from Camp Devens.
Bossed by Senators,
From the Hist it was heralded as
that most unusual thing, nn unbossod
convention. All the experts asserted
that the delegates were going to do ns
they pleased and that the old-time
leadership was Impotent. For a day
or two this seemed true, but then the
sennte coterie got Into action, nnd
from that lime to the end what was
done was generally what it wished
done. To start with Senator Lodge
was selected as temporary chairman,
and was continued permanently In the
place, tho entire temporary organiza
tion being retnlned. On the all-Important
committee on resolutions there
were numerous senators? and ex-senators,
and they pretty much dlctuted
the makeup of the platform. In the
selection of tho ticket their Influence
wus seen and felt In every move anil
every shift of votes, clenr down to the
moment when Senator Harding re
ceived the ballots that made him the
convention's choice. All this- time the
greatest of the old-time party bosses
still olive. Senator Boles Penrosv. lay
on a sick bed In his Philadelphia home.
But a direct telephone wire was run
Into that room and there was scarcely
an hour "f the day or night when he
was not In communication with his
friend. John T, King, lie knew nil
that was going on. nnd It Is fair to
assume that In most cases be knew
beforehand thnt It was going to go on.
What happened, happened because ho
willed that It should happen. This is
not written exactly in criticism, for It
may he that what Penrose decreed
will suit the party and result In Its
victory In November. But the fact
cannot be blinked that some emlment
Democrats who attended the conven
tion went away with grins of satisfac
tion decorating their faces.
Lodge Was Too Scholarly.
To go back to the beginning again,
something must be said of the keynote
address by Chairman Lodge. It was
one of the most scholurly efforts of Its
kind, and the great mass of the dele
gates, to say nothing of the nudlenne,
utterly failed to comprehend It. The
senator did not once descend to the
level of most of his hearers, nnd con
sequently he foiled to orouse any greut
measure of enthuslnsm.
It was noticeable that this address,
as well as every other speech nnd the
platform as well, devoted Its denunci
atory passages not to the Democratic
party, lis Is usually the caw, but to
President Wilson. It wns always his
ucts and his policies thnt were con
demnedand the language used In
dealing with him wns scorching. Of
course, tlie reason ror tins is tnnt,
from the viewpoint of the Republicans,
Mr. Wilson has been the Democratic
party for tlie last seven years.
Tlie first day found three candidates
In the forefront of the race for the
nomination, nnd while tlie prelimi
naries were completed their workers
were straining every nerve tnv hove
them make tlie best possible show on
the first ballot. These men were (inv
entor Lowden of Illinois. General
Leonard Wood, and Senator Hiram
Johnson of California. From their
elaborate headquarters In the hotels
swarms of men and women flocked to
the Coliseum with banners nnd but
tons and literature. Each of them
was certain of victory for public con
sumption but each of them knew in
hls'heart that he could not win If the
senatorial bosses had their way. All
the rest of the possible candidates
really ranked as dark horses. They
included Herbert Hoover. Dr. Nicholas
Murray Butler of Columbia university,
Gov. Calvin Coolldge of Massachusetts,
Senator Polndexter of Washington,
Senator Howard Sutherland of West
Virginia, Governor Sproul of Pennsyl
vania. Senator Philander Kijox of
Pennsylvania and Senator La Follette
of Wisconsin. A long enough list In
all conscience. From these dark
horses. It was predicted, would emerge
the winner, nnd the prophecy wns ful
filled. Routine Work, Then Oratory.
It required three doys to get through
wtlh the preliminary work of the gath
ering and to have the platform built,
read and adopted. The latter took
place tin Thursdny. As bos been said,
the resolutions met with nhnost unani
mous approval. A young man from
Milwaukee wos the only dissenting
member of the committee and he pre
sented a minority report thnt embodied
many of the policies advocated ' y La
Follette. The audience did not want
to hear him and he took advantage
of their Impatience to try to place him
self In the position of n mnrtyr, but
Chnlrmon Lodge cleverly forestalled
this, and the mlnortly report wns
speedily dumped Into the waste basket.
Friday was the day of oratory. Men
who thought themselves eloquent and
other who renlly were eloquent mount
ed the speoker's platform In procession
throughout most of the day to place
before the convention the names and
qualifications of the candidates. In
many cases women, were among those
who seconded the nominations, nnd
usually- they acquitted themselves
much more to the satisfaction of their
henrers than did the men. for they
were brief, snappy and graceful of
On the roll cnll of states Arizona
yielded to Kansas, and Governor Hen
ry J, Allen stepped up to nominate
General Wood. Though obviously
nervous and not quite adequate of
voice, be did his excellent subject
full ustlcey setting forth specially the
line record the general had made In
Culm and tho Philippine", nnd his pre
pnredness for war when the great
conflict broke out,
"We heard from him no platitudes
about a million men springing to arms
over night," cried Allen, nnd everyone
strained for n look nt Mr. Bryan, who
sot In the press stand close to the
The governor went on to describe
Wood's skillful training of on army
and his unselfish and uncomplaining
devotion tq. duty when he wns kept
from going to Europe In command of
the boys whom he hud tnught how to
fight nnd conquer. He nlso recounted
the general's success In quelling labor
nnd race disturbances within the last
yenr or so, and dwelt on Ills popular
ity with the very -men whom he had
been sent to quiet.
Wood's Feathery Ovation.
As the governor touted speuKing n
storm of applause broke out, nnd nn
other storm of red and green feathers
i from the ratters till over the
House. The Wood delegates marched
through the aisles, led by Boveridge
of Indiana and Frank Hitchcock, and
the tumult continued for half an hour
"ir woou urops leatners, l suppose
Johnson will drop light wines and
beers from the ratters," laughed Mr
Bryun, and someone sold : "Get your
cup ready then, Willlum."
The demonstration was calmed nt
last really It did not seem very spon
taneousand after Frank Knox of
New Hampshire had made a seconding
speech, the lirst of the convention's
woman orators nppeured. She was
Mis. Corlnne Roosevelt Robinson of
New York, sister of the late Colonel
Roosevelt. With much of the colonel's
lire aud vim, she told why Leonard
Wood should be the next president, and
she told It so well that prolonged np
plause rewnrded her efforts.
Governor Lowdeu'ts turn came next,
and the honor of presenting his name
was entrusted to Congressman Roden
berg of Illinois, a big man with a big
voice who made in old-fashioned
speech that hit the audience In the
right way. He, too. had an excellent
subject, whose cause wus huudleupped
only by the revelations of excessive
expenditures brought out by the sen
ate committee at the Instigation of
Johnson nnd his friends.
Lowden's ovation outlasted that for
Wood, but was :fo more enthusiastic.
It wns featured by a display of ban
tiers nnd portraits of the candidate
and by n pretty girl In a cerise sweat
er who wns carried on men's shoulders
nt the head of the parnders. Lowden,
too, had a woman among his second
ers, Mrs. Fletcher Dobyns of Chicago,
a clever politician and good speaker,
Then Governor Morrow of Kentucky
told why the Republicans of his stnte
loved Lowden nnd wanted him for
Johnson's Spopser a Failure,
Charles S. Wheeler of San Francisco
hod been dcputwl to place Senator
Johnson In nomination, and much was
expected of him, because a reputation
for llery eloquence had preceded him
But, though his address was smooth
aud his voice pleasing, he scored the
worst failure of the entire convention.
He evoked some cheering from the gal
lerles by u denunciation of the League
of Nations, but soon after made the
gross mlstnke of twitting the reservn
tlonlsts on having been worsted by
Johnson in the committee on resolu
Hons. The delegates did not relish
that, nor did most of the 'others in
the boll. Then he mode nn unfortu
nate allusion to the campaign expendi
ture revelations, and as those had hit
most of the candidates, their friends
.resented It with boos and hisses. Mr,
Wheeler smilingly united for the rou
te cease, and proceeded to finish an
address that was fully twice as long
as It should hnve been. His poor per
formance cast n wet blanket on the
planned demonstration, and the Cali
fornia delegates, nccompanled by n few
others, marched rather sndly through
the aisles, listlessly waving flogs.
Far better than Wheeler's was the
speech for Johnson by Thomas D.
Scholl, the blind congressman from
Minneapolis, and better, also, were the
brief talks by Richard Dohcrty of New
.Torsey, Charles I. O'Ncll of Michigan
and Mrs. Kathcrlnc Phillips Edson of
Now begnn the parade of dark
horses. They were led forth us fol
lows: Calvin Coolldge, by Speaker
Gillette of the house of representatives
nnd Mrs. Alexander Pelffcr; Butler, by
Ogden Mills of New York; Prltchnrd,.
by Marlon Butler of North Carolina;
Hoover by Judge Nathan L. Miller of
New York; Harding, by Frank Willi
of Ohio; Sproul, by William I. Schnf
fer; Polndexter, by George II. Walker
and Sutherland, by Joseph M. Sunders.
When Wisconsin was reached on tho
roll cnll the clerk paused expectant
ly, but no ono nppenred to nominate"
La Follette, and the crowd seemed)
Balloting Is Begun.
The powers thnt were decreed that
several ballots should be taken thnt
day before adjournment, nnd In nn ex
cited hush the call of the states wns,
begun.' Tlie hush did not Inst, how
ever, for every considerable vote for
any one aspirant wus greeted with the
cheers of his friends.
As hnd been foretold, Wood led
on the first ballot with 287 voses.
Lowden wns second with 211, and)
Johnson gathered In 133. The oth
ers In general werenccorded the votes
of their home states and n few more.
Of the Wisconsin delegation 24 voted
for Ln Follette; nnd it mny ns wen
be recorded here that those 24 dele
gates kept voting for La Follette.
to the bitter end. And every time the
announcement wus greeted with groans-
and hisses from the gnllerlcs.
In the following three ballots Wood!
climbed to 314, which the wise ones
said wns about his maximum strength.
Lowden nlso Incrensed his vote, going
up to 289, while Johnson reached
140. The votes for the dark
horses did not vary to nny great ex
tent though Butler lost steadily nnd
Prltchnrd soon dropped out entirely.
1 1 By this time everyone was rendy for
n rest nnd the convention adjourned
to Saturday morning.
The Break to Harding.
The croud filled the Coliseum to
suffocation on whnt was destined to
be the final day of the convention, for
It wns felt that the conferences of
the preceding night would be fruitful.
The senntorlnl coterie hnd been In ses
sion ninny hours nnd the word wnj
pnssed around thnt they had picked
on Harding as the nominee. In the-
early ballots of Saturday theOhlooni
did not gain rapidly, and all were-
waiting for the hioment when the big
delegations from New York, Pennsyl
ynnln nnd Massachusetts would find
the time ripe for n break. The men.
from the Keystone state had been,
voting almost solidly for Sproul, for
the bosses were not decided between
him nnd Harding. And the New
YOrkers renlly did not know to whom
to throw their strength.
Johnson's vote dwindled gradually.
and-then the Lowden column suddenly
begnn to go t'o pieces. He was- really
the victim df the shift, for the Wood
delegations stood by the general almost
to the last moment. On the ninth
ballot It wns seen that Harding
could be "put across," so the uncer
tain ones climbed Into the band wag
on on the tenth nnd gave the Ohio
senator a grand total of 074, which
was 181 more than necessary to nom
The hubbub was deafening nnd nfter
Pennsylvania put 00 votes In the Hard
ing column the clerks could scarcely
complete the roll call. At Its f.nlsh
the usual motion to make the choice
unanimous wns made, but' those 24
La Follette men from Wisconsin voted
In the negative nnd marred the love
Coolldge Gets Second Place.
There still remained the task of
selecting n vice presidential candi
date. Senntrfr Lenroot of Wisconsin,
Governor Allen of Kansas, Governor
Coolldge of Massachusetts and Col.
Harry Anderson of Virginia were
placed In nomination nnd the roll of
the states wns called. Lenroot re
ceived a good vote, but Coolldge was
the evident favorite and long before
the roll wns completed his nomination
was assured. The 24 La Follette men
voted for Senutor Gronnn.
With some difficulty Cholrmnn Ledge,
whose voice was gone, managed to hold
the delegates together long enough to
pass tho usual resolutions of thanks
to the officials of the convention and
to the city of Chlcngo, and then the
republican convention of 1020 came
to an end.
Convention Well Handled.
The management of the convention
hnll reallv deserved thanks, for the
seating, tho policing and the other
arrangements were the best ever seen
in such gatherings. The Coliseum was
handsomely decorated and well lighted
and the comfort of the delegates nnd
guests wns as well looked after as
could be expected. Of course the usual
swarm of sergeants nt arms wns pres
ent, clogging up the aisles and get
ting In the way of the workers, but
thnt Is inevitable, for tho distribution
of those bodges Is a perquisite of the
locnl Republicans. It was no worse
this time than usual. The doors were
In chnrgo of a force of ex-service men
under the command of General Ryan,
oiftl their work wns done with military
Everyone had good things to sny
about the music supplied by Johnny
Hand's band, which wns stationed in
a lofty little gallery. On occasion It
wos led by John Hand third, a sturdy
chap In brilliant uniform who used the
hnton presented to his fnt'her, Armln
Hand, by Theodore Roosevelt at the
Progressive convention. It was made
of wood from trees on the "River of
Doubt," which the colonel discovered.
iCopyrlfitit, 1920. Vtern Newipapsr Union.)