The North Platte semi-weekly tribune. (North Platte, Neb.) 1895-1922, October 01, 1915, Image 2
THE 8EMI-WEEKLV TRIBUNE. NORTH PLATTE, NEBRASKA. W03 m INVENTOR OF SUBMARINE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL gf S.. I 1 Y W I TO tlio tlmo of tho "Challenger" H I expedition, vory little was known ro U gardlng tlio flab llfo or tho abyssal H--y depths of tho sea. Only about 30 I I finoclos wore known. Hut tho won derful collodions brought back by tho 'Challenger" from hor four-year crulno (1873-187G) rando known tho vast dlvornity, tho strangonoss and oven wolrdnoss Of this fish fauna. fc"Voral hundred kinds of deep-sea flshos had been collected somo of thom dredgod from a depth of more than a mile and It required n lingo quarto to describe and ptcturo them. From this volumo dates our real knowlodge of tho Halios of tho abyssal doop. Tho "ChalloiiBor" expedition was, Inded, a "Columbus voyage" In Ichthyology; It opened a now chaptor In tho his tory of tho oclonco. Slnco that tlmo many (loop-sen oxplorlng ex peditions havo boon sent out by tho various na tions, and h03ts of other ilshos havo boon brought up from tho oceans In all parts of tho world. More than n thousand spocleB aro now known, and wo can npproclato nt Its full value tho richness and strangeness of this fauna. Moreover, not only do wo know tho flshos thorn selves, but, as it result of tho sclontttlc Investi gations carried on by thu various expeditions, "wo now know n good deal of tho physical con ditions under which thoy Hvo, so that wo can, In n moasuro at least, oxplaln tho why and where fore of their oxtrnordlimry characteristics. Whon wo think of llfo In tho doop-sea, thoro comos to mind, llrst of all, tho enormous pros suro which those creatures must withstand. This prossuro bocomos tho greater tho doopor wo go down, and In tho profoundost depths It equals thousands of pounds to tho squaro inch. Tho rosult of this pressure 1b that tho tissues of Uiobc fishes aro tondor and looaoly knitted togothor. When thoy aro brought up out of tho dark ilopths, and tho great prcssuro undor which thoy lvo Is removed, tho explosion of tho gasos with- (u thom bulges out tho oyes, and often blows out ho viscora through tho mouth, while tho mus clos collapso, leaving thom soft and flabby llko Jnolst rags. Most doop-soa fishes aro very small iIbo, usually only a fow Inches in longth, and It Is probable that thla reduction in stzo has como iibout, to somo oxtont .nt least, from tho great prossuro undor which thoy live. Another important condition la tho dimness of light, or oven darknosB in tho profound depths of the son. If wo lmagino oursolvoa descend ing Into tho deep ocean, wo see tho light grow dimmer and dlmmor as wo go down, until flnnlly n lovol Is reached beyond which no light pone tratos nt all, Tho entire vaBt depth bolow It, Is In eternal darkness. Now tho flshos living In this dim light, or in total darkness, havo boon profoundly modified by it. In como forms tho oyoa havo becomo vory small, and la somo cases havo ontlroly dlsnpponred. Thoro nro even Ashes In which tho- skin and scales of tho body hnvo grown over tho plnco whore tho oyes should be, bo thnt thoso flshos aro, ns has boon aptly paid, "blind beyond redemption." Othor forms, on tho othor hand, hnvo been nffoctod in an entirely different way. Tho oyes, Instead of growing smnllor, havo grown larger, as If In an nttempt to catch ovory Hooting ray of light. In some flshos this has boon carried so far thnt tho oyes hnvo becomo liko enormous goggles, i Most (loop-sou flshos hnvo luminous organs of ono ktnd or another, so thnt thoy enrry their own light about with thom. In some thu entire body glimmers, tho coating of sllnio which exudos from tho poroa and Intoral cnnnls, omit ting n soft Bllvory glow. In others rows of ml- Eute. luminous organs run nlong tho sides of tho ody, or there are flashing light-spots on tho head or face. What a wonderful sight would bo to ub n small black flsh flitting through tho si lonco and dnrknons of the dcop with its head lights and row of pores gleaming through tho darkness liko some small ship passing through tho night with its portholes all aglow! 8omo (loop-sea fishes hnvo n luminous organ at tho end of a feeler on tho head. A pcrtlnont question may bo asked; How do we know these (IhIioh glow and glimmer, slnco no human oye hat over behold thom In tholr abyssal homo? Wo know this partly from anal ogy and purtly from nctual observation. Whon ono is in a boat In tho tropics, on ono of thoso Bultry nights when everything is n (load calm, unci thu black 'clouds hang bo low that sky and sea form ono continuous blackness, then ono may sco tho glimmering Ashes darting out of tho path of the boat, holr forms, silvery and ghost llko, outlined for ono moment against tho black ness of thu soa, This effect is chiefly duo to tho oxidizing of tho slimy socrotlon covering tholr bodies Why Bhall wo not bollovo, then, that In docp-Eca flshos a similar phenomenon lakes place, particularly as hi muuy of thom tho sllmo pores and canals nro creatlv ilnvninnori and must exudo largo quantities of sllmo? Then too, on deop-sea expeditions, on favorable occa sions, ns for instance, n dark calm night, AbIios that havo boon brought to tho "surface nnd placed In water woro seen to flash light from tho ends of tho tentacles or tho phosphoroscont pores, precisely ns wo should havo expected from a study of theso organs. Mnjor Alcock, In his Interesting volume, "A Naturalist In Indian Sons," montlons n specimen brought up from a profound depth which "glimmered liko n ghost as It lay dead at tho bottom of tho pall of tur bid senwator." Ho that by Inference, as woll as by nctunl observation, wo must bollovo that what we call luminous organs In deep-sea Ashes, emit light Into tho darknosB about them. In tho caso of flshos totally blind, tho nbsonco of light Is compensated for by tho" dovolopmont of enor mous nntonnnollko foolers, modlfled from fln rnys, so that these Aahos can feel their way, a It woro, through tho darkness. Tho nbsonco of light, however, entails another Importnnt consoquenco. As Is woll known, no plant life can exist In darkness. Thoro Is there fore no vogotatlon of nny kind In tho profound depths of tho son. Tho doop-soa flshos nro, In conrcquenco, nil cnrnlvorous,, tho moro powerful onos seizing nnd devouring tho weaker onos. It Is a cold black world whom might reigns su premo. Many hnvo enormous mouths, and for mtdablo tooth to Insure holding tho proy. In somo forms the tooth nro so lnrgo that tho mouth cannot bo shut! Tho tomporaturo of tho water In tho profound depths of tho soa, Is always low and noar tho freezing point. This Is truo ovorywhoro, ovon nt tho equator. Undoubtedly this haa an offoct upon tho flshos, although it is not yot known what it is. Tho amount of oxygon dissolvod In tho wntor nlso, Is much loss than In water noarer tho surface. Tho breathing apparatus of tho doop-soa flshos Is modlflt'd to suit tholr peculiar conditions. Tho gill filaments hnvo become much reduced In bIzo, nnd In a number of instances Borne of tho gill arches bear no gill filaments at nu. ino naiios aro apparently adapted to a much nmallor oxygon supply than thoso living m nvors or in mo siinllow Boa. When wo think of the vast dlvorslty nmong thoso flshos, tho question arlsos: Aro thoy all representatives of n Blngle family or group that hns bocomo spoclnlly ndnptod to llfo in tho doep flea; or do they bolong to dirforont families or groups? Ono need hardly bo nn Ichthyologist to nnswor this question. Even a cursory exam ination of tho rlates in a. work on deep-sea flshos will show that dirforont typos nro repre sented. In fact, n great mnny families aro in eluded in tho doop-sea fauna. Thuro nro sharks and rays; salmonotds, herrings, porches, -cols, nnd roprosontntlvcs of many othor families. Wo can oxplaln this heterogeneity among thom In this way. Wo mny lmagino that Hshes of many different kinds In tholr search, so to spoak, for tho unoccuplod corners of tho soa. found a haven In those doopor wators whoro thoy woro froo from pursuit by tholr enemies. In tht course of tlmo thoy migrated farthor and farther into tho doep, n chango In habits taking placo pari passu with tho changes In structure. Having started out with dirforont organizations, and possessing dlftoront dogroea of variability, thoy becamo dif ferentiated In dlvorso dlroctlons, so that whllo somo developed enormous mouths, poworful teeth, or phosphoroscont organs, othors bocamo bottom-living and pnrtly or completely lost tholr eyos. still othors dovolopod long feelers for groping their way through tho darkness. Now and ngaln, howovor, flshos of separate groups uuvuiupou similar structures, so that thoro aro mnny sirming cases among deop-sea flshos accomplish this group, but all tho difficulties were overcome thanks to tho Ingenuity nnd perseverance of Mr. P. P. Hortcr of tho museum's tnxldormlst stnff. Tho group, ns it is now installed, represents ten - nn rsf Iflnn.onn flalma If Ifl llOt. of course, a group In tho senso of tho hnbltnt groups displnycd In tho museum; It Is not n section, so to speak, taken from naturo and trans planted to the muBoum. In naturo so many ueep-sea nsues nru uui w bo found In so small n spneo. What tho group roprosonts is n number of fishes which nro in naturo scattered over a vast nrea and through a great height of water, hero brought together Tor museum purposes Into a few squars feet or space. Each flsh is reproduced nccurntoly with its phos phoroscont pores nnd tentacles as "theso nro known to exist. With ono or two exceptions thoy aro enlarged several times, as the Ashes themselves aro vory small. And slnco It Is known that tho phosphorescent organs do not glow with a steady light, tho Illumination of tho group hns boon arranged bo as to havo theso luminous organs flash Intermittently. Furthormoro, tho Installation Is arranged so thnt ono mny view tho Ashes for a few seconds In full light, ns It In a synoptic exhibit, and then sco them, when tho light goes out, as they aro supposed to appear In tho darkness of tho profound depths, lit up only by tholr own phosphoroscont organs. Near tho top of tho group Is soon a flsh which lives on tho border line between the region or dimness nnd total darkness. Many ot tho flshos living in this region aro not of a uniform somber huo, but nro brilliantly colored. Nooscopelua Is ono of these. Tho body is "ono dazzling shoon of purple and sliver and burnished gold, amid which Is a sparkling constellntlon of luminous organs" (Alcock). Tho glowing flsh In tho center 1b Barathronua dlaphanus, a small flsh known from a single spoclmcn, whlclr was dredged in tho Indian ocean nt n dopth of n llttlo over four-fifths of a mile. Tho modol of It is ono nnd one-half times tho natural size. Tho phosphorescent Ash with tho curious long tall (at tho right) Is Gigantura chuni. It, also, is known by only a single speci men. This was brought up from a dopth ot four flfths of a mile In tho Gulf of Guinea, on tho west coast of Africa. ' Tho model is twice tho natural size. Tho two dark flshos with enormous gaping mouths (near tho top, at tho right) nro Gnstros tomus bnlrdl. This species Is commoner thnu aornn of tho others, n numbor of spoclmons being In sovoral museums. Tho models of It in tho group aro copied llfo-slze rrom a specimen In tho museum. The species occurs In tho Atlantic ocoan, near tho American coast, In tho path or ocean liners. Spoclmcns hnvo been dredged from a depth or nearly throo mllos. Near tho bottom or tho group at tho lort-hand sldo, Is seen an cclllko flsh with a lino of llt-up porea. This la an enlarged modol of Styloph thalmus paradoxus, a small silvery Ash widely distributed in all tho oceans, whoso young also aro known. Tho gonorlo anrno It bears was given it in allusion to tho fnct thnt tho oyes nro perched on long slondor tentnclos. Tho species rnnges from n dopth of n llttlo less thnn a mllo to two and ono-hair miles. Another form with tentacles Is Gigantactis vanhooffonl. a spocios typ cn of mnny deop-sea flshos which havo a tentacle, terminating In a luminous organ, at ached to tho head. This tentacle serves as a uro for attracting proy. Tho present species n 0!nn'yrHy tW 8iec,rac" which were found In tho Indian ocoan at a mllo and a mllo and n half from tho surface. Tho creature " a times fl8U' U, 11,01,01 bC'ng on,arC(1 8l HIS 8TATUS. As a motorist, Is Jinks In tho running?" Is ho? Ho ran up a bill for repairs, ran down a woman In tho street, ran away from a running comment of tho crowd and was run In by S Ilcoman." 7 nt what tho biologist calls "convorgonco." or paral lelism. Tho musoum has rocontly prepared for exhi bition a numbor ot typical doop-son flshos or rangod in tho form of a group. Tho preparation or this oshlblt Involvod many technical dlfllcul tlos, such na tho modeling of tho flshos In trans parent or translucont media, to nprosont thom as gllramorlng or shining with llt-up "portholes." Consldorablo experimenting was nocoasary to NATURALLY. "Tho now ldoa of rroshalr games la n,n woll In tho Insane asylum, Isn't It?" worklnB about It." nr JU8t crazy JUST IT. If tho war continues for two years England will hnvo to uso cargo-carrying Submarines to Import food from tho United States, In tho opinion of Simon Lnko, submnrino Inventor and president of tho Lako Torpedo com pony, Bridgeport, Conn. Captain Lako, whoso company is constructing undersea boats for our navy, is encouraged m this belief by tho 5,500-mllo trip, on an Initial supply of fuel, mado by tho G-3 of tho United States navy. "Tho G-3 mado that trip at a sped of 11 knots ail hour," ho said. "At reduced speed she can cover a greater distance. "Between 18 and 24 months from now, should tho war run that long, tho ships of the Teutonic allies will cIobo tho seas to surfaco Bhipmcnta of food, ammunition and other supplies from this country to England. You can readily boo thnt some other method of . , , shipment will hnvo to bo adopted. And why not tho cubmarlno? Secret stations will bo established on tho English coast, from which long linos of mlnea will extend out In parallel lines. Only the captains of tho submarines and tho officers at tho landing stations will know the location Of. tllPHO mffina A ta1itna will tin - ...... iiuiujio I' 111 Uli OUlIb 11 U1U tho shore to watch for hostile submarines and, even should hostllo airships duiuuu m locating mo sunmarino freight boats, thoy would bo unable to destroy tho submarines unless they rose to tho surface." THE SPHINX OF ITALY SIgnor Sidney Sonnlno, Italy's mlnlstor for foreign affairs, is known in tho Italian press as "the Sphinx." Ho has twico been premier and has throe times declined the honor, ho has been minister of flnance, has served In tho diplomatic corps at Paris, Vien na, Madrid, and has sat In parliament 34 years. With this varied experience in governmental affairs, ho was sought by tho king to guldo tho cabinet in the crisis brought about by tho outbreak of war. Sonnlno declined, fearing, it Is said, that ho would not bo able to command tho necessary support in parliament. IIo has always declared ho "belonged neither to tho right, nor to tho loft," meaning thnt ho ndopted no policy of open support or opposi tion to tho government. Ho 1b a lib eral. Ho Is an exceedingly cultured man, a good olassicnl scholar nnd a distinguished commentator of Dante. His knowledge of state affairs is complete, but ho lacks parliamentary ability, His speeches aro cold and uninspiring. HIGHLY HONORED WOMAN For the first time in its history Columbia university conferred tho hon orary degreo of LL. D. on a woman recontly. She Is Miss LoulBa Leo Schuyler and sho was born In Now York In 1837. Miss Schuylor was prom inent in tho work of tho sanitary com mission In tho Civil war. Slnco that tlmo sho has been prominent In hos pital and poorhouso work and sho founded tho State Charities Aid asso ciation in 1872. She established the Bollovuo Hospital Training school for nurses and sho has dono much other notablo philanthropic work. M183 Schuyler is a great-granddaughter of Alexander Hamilton aud of Gen. Philip Schuyler of tho American revolution. Although Miss Schuyler Is no longer young, hor days of activity aro by no moans over. It was only nlno years ago that sho organized the first committee in the United States for aftercare of tho insano, nnd a year lator she was appointed ono of tho original trustees of tho Itussoll Sago foundation. In 1&08 sho organized tho first commltteo in this country for prevention of blindness, and it was composed of both physicians and laymen. In addition to tho varied and coasoless activities already sketched, Miss Schuylor has written voluminously upon tho subjects in which alio Is recog nized as a leading authority. GIVEN IMPORTANT POST "Thnt motorist was developing railroad snood whon tho cop got him." spooa "I bco. A caso of arrested development" When Secretary of State Lanstug joloctod Frank Lyon Polk for tho highly important position of counselor of tho state department, ho picked an accomplished lawyer nnd a man of wide exporienco. Mr. Polk is tho son of Dr. William Mecklenburg Polk, dean of tho Cor nell Medical school, the grandson of tho Confederate blshop-genoral, Loonl das Polk, and the grandnophow of President Jnmos K. Polk. Ho wan born In 1871 and was graduated from Yalo in 1894. Ho studlod law at Co lumbia Law school and was graduated from thoro In 1897. In 1898 ho wont to tho Spanish war with Troop A and bocamo assistant quartermaster under General Ernst with tho rank ot cap tain. In 1908 he married Miss Eliza beth Potter, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. James Potter of Philadelphia. Thoy havo three children. Mr, Polk waB treasurer ot tho bu reau of municipal research during Mayor McClolInn's administration and a momber of tho Thomas Hott Os borne Democratic Idngue in the early days of the Dix campaign. In January, 1914, ho was appointed corporation counsol of Now York by Mayor Mltchel, his close frlond, Ho was riding with Mayor Mltchel last yoar when a grlev-anco-crnzed man shot at tho mayor. The bullet mlssod Us mark and struck Mr. Polk in tho left cheek.