The North Platte semi-weekly tribune. (North Platte, Neb.) 1895-1922, September 14, 1915, Image 6

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mi a, xi i . f
A temporary outdoor factory In Germany whuro Uusslnn prlBoncr3 aro
making of entanglements In front of trenches.
Wholesale Distribution of Com
modities Often Seems to
Take Circuitous Route.
Economic Conditions Do Not Court
Market ParasltcB Consumers De
mand More Elaborate and
Efficient Service Problem
Is Difficult One.
(Prepared by the United States Depart
ment of Agriculture.)
Washington, D. C Tho present
Abundance of fresh vegetables and
fruits brings with It tho perennial
necessity for tholr rapid, economical
distribution and for encouraging a
generous and steady consumption.
Tho machinery for moving theso food
products is complex, and retail gro
cors are often accusod of not follow
ing closely tbo wholcsalo market quo
tations; that in tlmos of glutted mar
kets thoy do not cut prlcoo severely
and aid in a rapid movement from
producer to consumer. But tho re
sponsibility for Blow and uneconomic
movement into consumptive channols
la difficult to traco. Tho largo class
of food distributors known as "mid
dlemen" aro often accused of levying,
Arbitrarily, a heavy tribute on all food
stuffs passing from tho producor to
tho consumer. Tho attention of tho
public has boon frequently directed
to increased coats of products rathor
than sorvico rondorod. Tho now
United States Department of Agrlcul
turo Bulletin, No. 207. "Mothods of
Wholesale Distribution of Fruits and
Vegetables on Largo Markets," does
Dot indict tho "middlemen" as a clasH,
although It points out somo of tho
Abuses In tho trado. As n matter of
fact, says tho department's special
ists, whun discussing tho present mar
keting organization, economic laws
would not permit tho long-continued
existence of a marketing agency which
was solely a parasite.
Production Increases.
Sovoral Important factors bavo con
tributcd to the establishment of many
middlemen ns necessary agonts In tho
prosont system of marketing. Pro
Auction during tho last decado has In
creased greatly, and Improved moth
ods and facilities for handling tho In
crease havo been introduced. Keep
Ing paco with Increased production
has come tho demand of consumers
for inoro elaborate and efficient sorv
ico. Seldom Is tho fact considered
that sorvico can become a vory ex
pensive luxury. With tho wldonlng of
tho dlstanco botwoon tho city and tho
sources of its fruit and vegctablo sup
piles there has arisen tho necessity
for special ngonclos to moot tho
changed conditions.
Tho presont distributive machinery,
with ail its strong points and Its weak
ncsscs, ha8 been created of nocosslty
and it has weathored tho storm of
much ndvorso criticism. Kvory part
of Uio country is now enjoying the
pcrlshablo products of tho moBt re
mote districts. Any readjustment of
prosont market practlcos must bo
based upon tho fact that Bomo agoncy
must contlnuo to porform tho func
tions of tho prcsont-day middleman,
Tho problomB Involved In handling
goods through a largo markot dlffor
greatly from thoso of production. Us
ually ono man or one firm cannot han
dle both production and distribution
and Bucceed at both. Tho vast vol
umo of business transacted , at largo
market centors makes necessary somo
Bpeclal agonclcs which can devote all
their energies to distribution. Kspo
dally docs tho machlnory for olllclout
markotlng hocomo necessary when
perishable goods aro to bo handled.
Commodities of this sort must bo
moved rapidly, must bo distributed
evenly, aud from tholr naturo normlt
of no weakness In dlBtrlbutlvo ma
chinery, if thoy aro to bo sold at a
Cnusei of Losses and Wastes.
With tho poriBhablo naturo of a,
large part of tho fruits and vegetables
ninrketed there must bo some loss.
This often totals higher than the
farmer realizes. For Instance, accord
ing to tho department's market spe
cialists, tho loss on such commodities
ns strawberries, peaches and grapes
sometimes amounts to .10 or 40 per
cent before they reach tho hands of
tho rctnll trade. Losses duo to spoil
ing may be tho result of tho shipper's
sending ovorrlpo or dlscnscd fruit, or
falling to glvo proper attention to
packing, to loading, or to bracing tho
packages In tho car. Sometimes tho
railroad Is at fault. Delay In transit,
Improper ventilation or refrigeration,
or unnecessarily rough handling of
cars may contrlbuto to rapid deteriora
tion of tho shipment on arrival.
Tho lack of proper rofrlgcratlon fa
cilities nt distributing centers Is a
cause of much loss. When produco
moves slowly, thcro Is often much
spoilngo boforo complcto Bales can bo
mado. Rough handling during unload
ing or carting Is another Important
cause of loss. Ab a matter of fact,
tho opportunities for' losses duo to the
spoiling of commodities aro so mani
fold that it Is impossible to enter into
a completo discussion of them.
It is nlways woll to bear In mind
tho really sorlous sldo of losses aud
wastes. Tho spoiling of a dozon can
taloupes, a basket of grapes, or u
crato of strawberries represents an
nbsoluto loss to tho community. No
benoflt accruos to producer, distribu
tor, or consumor from such a condi
tion. Tho loss occurring at this point
must bo Homo by both producor and
consumor, and in a great many cases
tho distributor must boar his part of
tho burden. Tho department's spe
cialists think in many cases losses
and wastes nro ontlrely too heavy a
tax on food distribution and that tho
elimination of unnecessary wastes
would do as much toward effecting
pormanont, substantial economies In
marketing and distribution bb any re
adjustment of present marketing
mothods could do.
Losses Can Be Avoided.
Tlio fact that a largo percentage of
theso losses can bo avoided by proper
grading, packing, and shipping, to
gether with prompt, ofllclont handling
whllo tho goods nro In process of dis
tribution., makes It imperative that
this subject bo given special consid
eration by thoso lntorostod in tho of
llclont markotlng of farm crops.
A bettor understanding by tho farm
er of tho complox marketing machin
ery would cnablo him to Intelligently
chooso between tho many channels
through which his fruits and vega
tables might bo marketed. Tho now
bulletin alms to mako clonr to tho lay
man tho rathor intricate machlnory of
tho markot and deals with methods
of receiving, Inspection, rejections
tormlnnl distribution and sales moth
ods, tho brokor, auction sales, cnrlot
wholoBalors, commission merchants,"
Jobbing sales, public markets, etc.
Tho first eugenic baby Is perfect
anil tliriving. Tho baby Is tho dauch
tor of Mr. nnd Mrs. Benjamin it. Uell
aud has boon named Ilolon Elizabeth
Sho was eight and ono-half paunda at
birth and has gained steadily halt a
pound a wook. Sho sloops In tho opou
nnd Is fod with a combination of arttll
clnl and natural food. Ilor mother
Is soon holding her In tho picture
Mora than $5,000,000,000 for luxuries
waB the record of expenditures In th
United States last year.
ut work manufacturing wlro for the
League-Is Formed to Make Na-tion-Wide
"Take Tariff Out of Politics" Is
Slogan Under Which Leading Men
of the United States 'Have
Chicago. "Take tho tntlff out of
politics and put ItTon a business basis"
Is the slogan of a natlon-wldo cam
paign to ho undertaken by. an organi
zation formed in Chicago to urgo the
establishment of d permanent non
partisan tariff commission. Many
leading men in tho United States havo
gono on record as appiovlng the plan
and are directly interested in the
Tho Tariff Commission league, Just,
formed In Chicago, and now in process
of detailed organization, will be tho
medium through which tho fight 'will
bo mado to nrouse the American pub
licthe business world, the agricul
tural world, tho labor world to bring
such pressure to bear upon congross
that tho proposed tariff commission
will bo created.
James J. Hill has agreed to tako the
chairmanship of the advisory commit
tee of thirty members, which will pass
upon all general matters of policy and
action, and which Is now being formed.
On Mr. IIIU'b advisory committee it
is intended to have prominent repre
sentatives of agriculture, labor, manu
facturing, trade and commerce, higher
education, aa well as experts on eco
nomics and public officials.
Warren S. Stone of Cleveland, grand
chief of tho International Brotherhood
of Locomotive Engineers, hus accepted
an Invitation to servo on tho advisory
committee, as ono of the representa
tives of labor. Another member of the
advisory commltteo Is Mrs. Samuel
Sneath of Tiffin. Ohio, first vice-
president of tho National Federation
of Women's Clubs, nnd a recent addi
tion is Miss Jane Addams of Chicago.
Iteproscntlng agriculture on that com
mltteo are: F. D. Coburn of Kansas,
tho "Father of Alfalfa." who for twen
ty years has been secretary of the
Kansas department of agriculture; ex-
Governor W. D. Hoard of Wisconsin.
who has been called tho father of the
dairy Industry of tho West, nnd A. V.
Grout of Illinois, ono of the chief farm
ers of that part of tho country and
president: of the National Alfalfa Grow
era ussqclatlon. Tho composition of
the remainder of the committee will
be determined shortly. John J, Mitch
ell, president of tho Illinois Trust and
Savings bank, is treasurer of tho
league. G. S. Wood, a well-known
newspaper man of Chicago, Is assist
ant to the president.
Tho president of tho Tariff Commis
sion league, and tho man who will be
In direct and nctlve charge of the cam
palgn for tho arousing of public sentl
hient, Is Howard II. Gross of Chicago
Demands of Wisconsin Woman
Considered In Court at
Milwaukee, Wis. Woman and her
clothes was tho subject of a discus
sion In tho District Court whon Geortji)
Gruenownld, wealthy farmer, was ar
raigned on Uio chargo of abandoning
his wlfo and chltdron.
Mrs. Gruonowald admitted her bus
band furnished her with an up-to-dato
homo. "But ho will not glvo mo
money for clothes," sho said "Mo
doesn't glvo me more- than "0 a year
to dress with." Gruenowald'B attor
ney demanded to know how much was
roqulrod. Tho court loft tho question
to Assistant District Attorney Sullt
"I should say," said Sullivan, "that
sho could properly dress on $3.50 a
"That Isn't enough," Mrs. Grueuo
wald nssortqd. "1 need $5 a week.
Gruenownld agreed to pay $3.50. Ills
wlfo agreed that tho abandonment
caso be dismissed.
Thorns Gripped Dying Man.
Jamestown, Ky. Andrew Koford.
aged soventy-ono years, was ' aught
under u thorn apple trco which ho
felled on his farm near hero. Tho
thorns gripped his clothing and pro
vented his escapo while tho tree rIow-
ly crushed out his Ufa
Expected That State Will Spent
Nearly $200,000,000 for Better High
ways In Next Few Years.
(By II. A. JEFFRIKS. Member of Illlnoll
Good Roads Association.)
Illinois has been ono of tho last
states to tako up seriously the prob
lorn of improving its roads, but now it
la going into It with a determination
to mako big advancement in a short
tlmo. A commission of Illinois road
enthusiasts has been touring tho
states, inspecting roads and investi
gating tho methods of road building.
It Is expected that the state will spend
In tho next few years nearly $200,000,
000 for good roads, and necessarily
our people want to got the best roads
The question of whether there Bhall
bo macadam roads, brick roads or con
creto roads is ono to bo determined.
Many of tho new roads aro of mac
adam construction, nnd there has been
a lot of sentiment for tho brick high
ways. Concreto roads havo been ob
jected to -largely because of tho great
cost of construction. It costs $14,000
a milo for nn 18-foot concreto road,
and this initial outlay Is bo great that
it ordinarily scares any community.
Tho advantage of tho concreto road,
however, lies in tho small cost of
Tho expenso of keeping up a com
creto road, it is said, is less than $30
a year per milo, with tho experience
of New York, Massachusetts, Now Jer
sey and Pennsylvania shows that It
costs $800 a milo to maintain mac
adam and brick roads.
It makes no difference what kind of
construction, so long as we get im
proved roads, and wo can well afford
later -on to change the stylo of road
If wo get a first-class highway acrosB
tho continent, which, I believe, wlll
bo accomplished in tho next ten
Pedestrians Go Around Bad Streets to
Reach Shops on Good Highways
Add to Realty Value.
(By L. K. COQPER.)
It would seem that in this lato day
and age advocating good roads as good
for mankind generally and business
particularly would be unnecessary.
Good roads mean good business.
Havo you ever noticed tbat in towns
Immediately after a street has been
paved or resurfaced, pedestrians and
vehicles begin to multiply on those
It does not take long before every
body, It seems, knows of tho newly
paved streets and many go out of the
way to travel thorn. Last summer the
pavement on a street near my home
wbb torn up for repatchlng. The con
tractors were so long In oven attempt
ing to get started on tho work that
merchants along tho street started
suit against tho city for business thoy
know they had lost because tho street
was impassable.
If good streets and street is only
another name for road mean so much
to tho city business man, It Is to bo
supposed they aro Just as valuable an
asset to the business man or the farm
er located on tho highways of the
country. Good roads, in the flrat
place aro a benefit to every individual
in this big land of ours. If all roads
nro good, tho peoplo residing hi their
Immediate locality find it easier to get
A Macadam Road on the Prairie,
from place to place. Tho person mak
ing u. long cross-country tour finds
tho journey the joy he counted on and
not a trial, as It certainly Is where
traveling Is bad. In tho second place,
good roads Increase the value of prop
ertyso real estate Is benollted.
And so I could go on down the list
tho hotel man, the butcher, tho
baker, all aro bonelltod, either directly
or Indirectly, by good roads; and by
good roads I mean roads that permit
of foot or vehicular truffle durlnu all
Boasons of tho year.
Important Duty to People.
The making of good roads is one
of the most Important duties of tho
peoplo and their prompt repair and
enreful maintenance Is essential.
Thero is probably no subject In which
tho progressive farmer is moro dcop
ly interested than that of having
roads connecting him with his mar
kets over which ho must bo ablo to
aul tho greatest possible load. Good
roads, llko all other ue4 things, nro'
too oxponalvu to build and of too
niucb valuo to bo neglected.
tf- o x " ; -i
Washington May Be World's Capital of Fashion
WASHINGTON. Plans for tho transferring of tho dictatorship of tho
world's fashions from Paris to Washington aro under wuy. Tho initial
movement toward making this city tho stylo center of tho unlvcrso has been
mado by tho chambor of commerce-
1 ?T? S7r
destined to envolop tho greater part
of tho carth'B inhabitants found the Paris firms overstocked. As n precaution
for self-protection, these same merchants now aro focusing their attention
upon the seats of governments in tho nations that nro not involved In the
conllict. In their search thoy look to Washington, tho capital of tho foremost
neutral country, as tho logical place from which to dispense tho codo that Iff
to govern tho fashions during tho years to come.
Restrictions In tho matter of passportB havo served to turn back buyertr
from America who have annually mado pilgrimages to Paris. Tho result is
that thero Is a moro restricted supply of foreign fashionable goods here at
present than at any other time, when tho fall fashions aro supposed to bo
ottracting tho attention of houses that cater to tho elite.
Whllo thero Is no formal action by which tho Capital of Fashion Is trans
ferred from city to city or nation to nation, a favorable answer from tho
bithorto dictators la all that Is considered necessary for Washington to
assume tho position In tho van. .
Society Woman in Washington Has a Pet Jaguar
SOCIETY has explored some of tho remotest corners of tho -world In quest
of unique decorations for milady, but Mrs. Hazel Wilson of this cityonjoya
the happy distinction of being tho first member of tho national capital's
'smart set" to possess a real, live,
undomcsticated baby jaguar for a
chum and companion. To bo sure, it
Is only two months old, and no larger
than a big house cat. but it has a
formidable array of long, white, sharp
teeth encircling Its jaws, small, pierc
ing, yellow oye3 and a very short tem
per. Although Mrs. Wilson and Beauty
have been friends only a few weeks
tho little wild pet seems to tako his
captivity as a matter of courso, and
has already mado up his mind that Washington society is not such an un
pleasant habitat. Beauty is nourished from "tho bottle," just as any other
baby would be, and If ho does not grow up to bo a decent, respectable Ameri
can citizen ho can blame his own junglo forbears and what's moro, ho baB
been mado to understand that If ho displays any of his vicious traits In the
presence of "company" his education will ceaso, his fair companion wilt
dosert him, and ho will be hurried off to the zoo whero less consideration
will be shown him.
At his owner's home in tho Thomas, Beauty is given the utmost freedom,,
even to reclining in his mistress armB to receive tho dally manicure and'
bath, and when ho Is real nice ho is allowed to accompany hla benefactress
on her morning walks and drives. He showed the greatest delight one day
when tho "movie man" arrived to chroniclo his funny little antics.
At first, In truo savage fashion, ho tried to intimidate his audience, but
when he was told it was quite tho proper thing for well-bred Americans to be
exploited in tho "movies" he growled his approbation and blinked and
purred and somersaulted until the camera film was exhausted.
Beauty was captured in the wilds of Brazil before his oyes were open,
nnd was sent to Mrs. Wilson by a friend.
Money Destroyed at Rate of $5,000,000 a Day
REDEEMED paper money with a nominal valuo of $1,541,131,111 in 377,364,
188 pieces was dbstroyed by the treasury department during tho fiscal
year ended June 30. Officials estimate tho notes weighed 590 tons and that
about $5,000,000 worth wob destroyed
regulations wore based upon tho act
of congress of March 17, 1862, authorizing the secretary to prescribe tho
method of destroying notes unfit for circulation. Although changes in the'
treasury department's business have resulted In modification of practically
every procedure established by the original regulations, Secretary Chase's'
order had never been abrogated or formally revised. Thero havo been many
changes in practice, however, during tho intervening years, and many of
them are not matters of record.
By Secretary McAdoo's orders these changes aro now compiled and
brought up to date, with additional modifications as safeguards to meet the
conditions of tho presont day.
In Secretary Chaso's time paper monoy and securities wore destroyed
by burning. Experience showed that this was not the safest plan in connec
tion with tho destruction of distinctive paper, becauso it is difficult to burrr
bundlos of monoy, and undestroyed pieces may escapo through tbo chimney.
For this reason tho act ofJune 23, 1S74, authorized the destruction by
Tho destruction of theso once valuable bits of paper has always beon
witnessed by joint committees. This policy is continued In Secretary Mc
Adoo's order.
Eleven-Cent Stamp Is Now Sold by Uncle Sam
THE issuance of an lVcent stamp has been authorized by the postmaster
general and tho post office department Is now prepared to supply stamps
of this denomination to postmasters. Tho new stamp will bo used chiefly in
prepaying postage on parcels and
postage and insuranca fee on insured
parcels amounting to 11 cents.
The local postage rate upbn parcel
post Is 11 cents upon parcels weighing
12 nnd 13 pounds. In tho first and
Bocnnd zones packages weighing seven
pounds tako 11 cents.
In tho fourth zone, 11 cents Is re
quired for two-pound parcels, nnd tn
tho Hoventh zono for ono-pound par
cels, The rato In the seventh zone for
11 pounds is $1.11. Heuco it was
found that an 11-cent stamp would meet a widespread need and demand.
Postmasters desiring a' supply of tho now stamp may now mako requisition
ror It. .
Ordinary stamp Issues n6w ombraco denominations from 1 cent to 12
cents, Inclusive, and live additional 10 cents, 20 cents, 30 cents, 50 cents anil
f . Tho 11-cent Bttimp bfcars tho head of Franklin in proftlo, from Houdon's
wst. and is printed in dark green ink. It is ot the same shape and size u
1e other ordli ary ecainpa.
through negotiations with tho Amor
lean chambor of commerce at tho
French capital; tho proposition is now
to enlist tho united efforts of mer
chants in tho schemo which might ro-
suit in raagntiiccnt -benefits to Wash-
Tl,o world war has dealt stun
ning mows to modlBtea of Franco.
Coming with a suddenness that was
startling, tho conflagration that was
each day.
In 1865 only 70,000.000 pieces of
paper monoy with a nominal valuo of
$144,219,920 were destroyed. Regula
tions for tho destruction of paper
money, havo recently been codified;
and revjsed by tho treasury depart
ment. The government first issued paper
money in connection with the Civil
war finances, and Secretary Chase's