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About The North Platte semi-weekly tribune. (North Platte, Neb.) 1895-1922 | View Entire Issue (July 24, 1914)
THE SEMI-WEEKLY TRIBUNE. NORTH PLATTE, NEBRASKA.
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BEGINNING WITH POULTRY IN RIGHT WAY
HORSE .GAINS IN NUMBERS AND DEMAND
- V )
This House Will Care fop 100
(By ELIZABETH PUTNAM.)
Tho beginner will do well to begin
on a small scale a city lot or a big
back yard will be largo enough and
grow up, or rathor, let the business
grow until it reaches tho stago whero
It becomes unwieldy. How soon and
at what point this stago la reached de
pends entirely upon tho person who Is
back of it.
There aro only a tow poultrymen
capable of carrying on with profit a
business whero tho hens aro counted
by the thousands, though so many
aro making tho hundreds profltablo
that tho poultry products of tho Unit
ed States equal those of tho dairy in
An expensive outfit is not only un
necessary, but unadvlsablo. Use tho
ruder forms to I'cgin with, and make
tho profits pay for the more elaborate
buildings. If they cannot do this,
you do not need the buildings. A
warm, and especially dry situation is
the primo requisite. Of course, thero
must be good ventilation.
Many securo this by using cloth ln
utead of glass in tho windows. Tho
method admits light, and at tho samo
time allow u for the circulation of uir
without danger of draft. Use new
muslin of light weight, preferably un
bleached, as it is stronger. Old cloth
may seem good enough when it Is put
in place; but before you are aware
it will bo torn by a hard wind and the
damage dono to tho flock will more
than counterbalance the supposed
economy in using half-worn cloth,
Tho material used for the building
will depend largely upon circum
stances. Somo have had excellent re
sults with only the shelter afforded
by old rails and corn fodder. But In
other locations this would not be an
economical plan. Tho plan of using
two piano boxes, removing tho top and
back of each, and placing them tho
width of ono box apart is a good one.
Tho slopo of tho boxes continued to
the rldgo outlines a slight roof, which
may bo covered with tho pieces of
board removed from the top and back
of tho boxes.
If you have tho building It may bo
projected by an annual coat of gov
Summer Roosting House Usually Very Comfortable During Hot Weather,
the Front Being Arranged In Such Manner as to Keep Out the Wet.
GOOD DOSE FOR BLACKHEAD
Mixture of Castor Oil and Turpentine
Will Prevent Oread Disease
Separate Ailing Birds.
If tho youns turkeys, or poults, most
people speak of them, begin to droop
und die, and before death show up
with a yeBow, watery discharge, tho
first thing to bo done Is to change tho
ration entirely, as It might merely be
indigestion. Then, for fear that it
Isn't, separate the oick from tho well,
and open ono of Uio dead poUUs. It
you find tho liver badly spctted, and
tho blind Intestines (the two short
ones) decidedly showing Inflammation,
then tho matter is serious nnd tho
poultB have tho blackhead, nnd recov
ery Is doubtful. However , ono can
try. Get tho well fowls to themselves,
feed light bread and milk, In which Is
a good sprinkling of peppor for each
meal. Give each poult a half teaspoon
ful of castor oil in which is placed
four or five drops of turpentine. Each
day after, don't miss the dosage of
turpentine onco a dny from two drops
to fivo or six for the younger poults.
This dosago Is for tho well. As for
tho sick, It would not hurt to try It,
though onco sick with this, It usually
in en in death.
ernment whitewash, applied with a
sprayer. This not only gives protec
tion to tho wood from tho woathor, but
tends to keep down insect pests, tho
success being still greater it the In
side Is treated in n similar wny or with
frequent sprayings of kerosene.
If you aro troubled with rats, a
cement floor will stop their progress
and will bo easily kept clean. A
scratching shed 1b a great advantage,
and in summer it will be most useful
for keoplng the chicks dry during
rainy weather or while tho dew Is on
A compartment for nesting boxes Is
also a convenience. Hens like to bo
removed from tho flock at this timo;
and if this Is not done there Is uneasi
ness, and when they aro sitting, great
danger of breaking tho eggs.
Cheese boxes make convenient nests,
and these may bo obtained of the local
grocer free or for a trifle. Never allow
tho nest boxes to bo fastened perma
nently, They should be removable and
frequently cleaned out and treated
with a good insect powder.
Thero aro many good Insect powders
In stock; many that are worthless.
Tho ago rather than the brand of tho
articlo is of interest, for it loses lte
strength 4n a season, despite manu-,
facturers' assertions to tho contrary.
If It Is not strong enough to suggest
a sneeze it is scarcely a protection.
If you cannot afford puro bred chick
ens, gradually work up to it. But ee.
lect some breed at which to aim. Drift--ing
in a haphazard way, getting Leg
horns hero and Orpingtons there will
never result la anything but a mongrel
Do not think for a minute that you
can niako a success of cross-breeding.
It requires an expert to do this.
Neither put too much stress on what
others tell you about the beBt breed;
It Is wise to learn the characteristics
of tho different breeds. But when it
comes to selecting the best breeds,
you will And udvice varies almost as
much aB the number of breeds.
Every ono has a favorite; and tho
fowl which is best for your neighbor
will not be best for you unless you
llko It beat, personal tasto must guide
largely In this matter.
HIGH ROOSTS FOR CHICKENS
Much to Blame for Mortality Among
Young Fowls Is Laid to Over
crowding In Small Coops.
Because overcrowding In small
coops placed near tho ground tends
to Injure tho health of young chick
ens, it is advisable to teach tlem to
uso perch roosts as early as possible
and practicable. This la tho opinion
of James G. Halpiii, in charge of tho
poultry department of tho University
of Wisconsin's college of agriculture.
Halpln also lays much of the blamo
for mortality among young chickens
from roup and similar diseases during
tho early winter months to neglect
on tho part of their ownors In seeing
that they aro placed on roosts early
In the scifson.
When chickens aro left out on cold
nights In an Improvised shelter they
aro sure to huddle closely together. In
this way tho bodily tomperaturc 1b
raised above normal, and thoy becomo
easily subject to colds, which often
lead to fatal diseased.
Common Poultry Disease.
Blackhead is a. disease very com
mon In young and old turkoya, smd
also In young chicken
Hens relish sklm-mllk.
Keep the tools in a Bhed.
Keep a small flock of sheep.
Only level floors for separators.
A good farmer Is a good fighter of
Cow-peas aro also a flno supplemen
tary pasturo for pigs.
Don't forget shade and cool, clean
water during warm days.
During tho first two days of a
chick's life It should rest and be kopt
Grade and pack your product so that
you can afford to put eorao kind of a
guarantee on It.
It pays In hard cash to keep tho
sows healthy and hearty, both before
and after farrowing.
Arsenate of lead is replacing purls
green In spraying potatoes because It
ndheres to the foliage better.
The early hatched pullet Is the ono
that begins to lay early In tho fall
when eggs are high In prlco. ,
Fresh, clean, cool water for hens
and chicks and all other kinds of poul
try Is very essential In hot weather.
Never put a horse up dirty or mud
dy for the night. At leaBt brush his
legs and belly, and straighten his hair.
It is lmportant.to have lettuce, spin
ach, peas, snap beans and tho like
reach tho market In a clean, fresh .con
dition. Good sheep require moro caro to
maintain their excellence. Poor sheep
aro always a burden upon the rest of
Glvo the hogs salt and ashes, espe
cially hard coal annes, and an occa
sional dose of copperas and sulphur
In tho slop. ,
Sun-scald Is death to trees. Valu
able young trees can bo protected by
a cylinder of heavy paper; not much
trouble and It pays.
Anybody living near a good-sized
town can do n fine business in swoot
corn by delivering it fresh every
morning to customers direct.
A small sowing outilt to place In tho
traveling bag when going visiting will
bo a great comfort and convenience.
It can bo mado of linen or silk.
In all soils tho gases and acids pro
duced by tho decay of vegetable mat
ter aro tho chief agents in setting free
the plantfood locked up in tho soil.
Spraying vegetables should bo com
menced tho very moment tho insects
aro seen, Evory day thereafter makes
tho work of observing them moro dif
ficult. Above all things, don't chnneo tho
collars of tho horses from one animal
to another. How would you llko to
wear somo ono olso'a shoes If thoy
did not fit?
In hot weather, and In nil weathers
If the horso is hot, Bponge his eyes,
nose, dock, tho harness marks, nnd
tho Insido of his hind-quarters when,
ho flrst comes In.
When pasturing rapo employ hur
dles, giving hogs a small strip at a
timo to feed on. This plan means less
waBto and aids in obtaining a second
growth of the plants.
Keop tho tools sharp. Don't lot
your team work with any machine that
needs sharpening. Dull tools dull tho
woik, and If anything will mnko a
slavo of a man It is working with dull
Do not forgetjhat In tho composi
tion of egg there is a great propor
tion of water, and tho laying hen
cannot produco eggs unless she has
all tho water sho wjnts, and at the
time sho wants it.
HalBo your own teams and ono oc
casionally for your neighbor. So long
as mon use Improved implements they
will continue to use good teams. And
the best way to havo an olllclent team
on your own farm Is to raise colts for
Where thero is no danger from
skunks or foxes or other animals dig
ging under, coops without floors uro
healthful and are cleaned by simply
moving them to a fresh location every
day. It is necessary, of course, to
keep them on dry ground.
Bo regular In milking.
Balse your own horses.
So) -bonus gather nitrogen.
Water tho horso before feeding.
Keep hogs awny from other stoclc.
Encourngo tho birds to stny with
Stake thn treeB blown crooked by
tho winter winds.
Breeding from Immature stock al
ways lessens stamina.
Most stato experiment stations will
test seeds for germination free of qost.
Skim-milk with ground corn and a
llttlo bright hay will make calves
Tho army worm Is a clumsy catcr
pillar and has troublo In climbing up
a strnlght wall.
Get your rye, or whatever catch
crop you uso, started ns soon after
harvest ns you can.
The best fertilizers cannot exert
their full effect on soils that are too
wet, too hard or too porous.
The condition of tho boII depends
largely upon tho amount of decaying
vegetable matter It contains.
It costs a little moro to fonco tho
hog lot with woven wlro fonco, but it
is the thing to do. Get tho best.
In transplanting your treeH set them
tho same depth, or a trifle deeper than
thoy stood in tho nursery row.
Green beans and peas may be had
all through tho summer and fall If
seed Is sown at different Intervals.
Thick-neck onions aro usually seen
during such seasons ns havo wet
weather nt tho usual timo of ripening.
A clean coop and freedom from llco
and mites will assist tho chlckB to
grow fast and tho fowls to molt prop
erly. Orvllle Scott of Bealsville, Pn owns
a duck which she declares laid two
eggs a day, something never known
Full grown green tomatoes may bo
kept about two months by wrapping
thorn In paper and storing them In a
Sweet potatoes should bo "laid by"
before tho vines cross tho rows,' other
wise thero will be a back-breaking Job
of turning them.
Nothing Is more delicious thnu a
dish of plump, rod strawberries, fresh
from tho vines, served with "rich
cream and sugar.
Somo of the shrewdest bankers In
tho country note their cllont's credit
by their ability to turn off a good
bunch of hogs each year.
If there la typhoid In tho neighbor
hood, fix up tho lly screens. Files aro
known to carry dlseaso moro than
hnlf a milo on their filthy feet.
Sklm-mllk. calves, although thin
ner at weaning time, ate sometimes
cold ns baby beef If well fed until
sixteen or eighteen months of age.
Each pig should bo looked after In
dividually; a general look will not do;
each animal hns Kb Individual needs,
and theso needs should bo studied.
It Is always the hen that lays tho
most eggB that produces tho most
chicks. In breeders high fertility Is
moro' to bo desired than high produc
tion, Polo beans and peas should bo
Btaked and the ground around them
loosened with a hoe. Draw the loos
ened earth toward tho rows, hilling
A garden of one-third to one-half
acre should bo lnrgo enough to supply
tho average family with all tho vege
tables required and with some small
fruit as well.
GardenorH use 400 and as high as
800 pounds of fertilizer to tho acre.
It is npplled In small quantities and
at different stages of growth and not
all at ono time.
A few boxes fitted up for bird nests
or houses and places In trees whero
cats cannot get at thorn often helpfr'to
keep very deslrahlo feathered neigh
bora In tho neighborhood.
To provent scratches, dry tho
horbo's fetlocks and heels when he
comes in, especially In winter; and
rub on a llttlo glycerins or vaseline
before ho goes out in snow or mud.
In all the lending milk producing
farm3 of the Eastern states, great at
tention Is now given to tho Importnnco
of having tho stublcs scrupulously
clean and thecows kopt In comfort.
It Is" found by actual test to bo profit
able to do so
It 1b all right to cultivate somo low
growing crops between young trees.
Early potatoes and early cabbago
would do well for thin sort of work,
When theso aro out of tho way sow
clover as a cover crop for wlntor and
turn it under In the spring.
wi-sWv z.mXst-nmzsm ra
The Most Profitable Type.
Tho horbo's place In tho Ufa of the
country has been threatened many
times, but ho has shown that he was
never really in danger, and ho Is In
moro request now than ever before.
When tho first railroad was built In
Now England It was opposed on the
ground that It would take tho valuo
out of horses. In 1826 n commlttco
from the Massachusetts legislature
concluded, after Investigation, that tho
steam locomotive could not be ac
cepted In tho United States as a sub
stitute for tho horse, as motlvo power,
writes JohopIi A. Rlcknrt of Missouri
hi Natlonnl Stockman nnd Farmer.
Later the bicycle wbb counted upon to
weaken tho position of tho horse
drawn vehiclo for pleasure, and to
somo degree for business. Tho tiolley
car displaced a certain number of
horocB aud mules, but did not take
much from tho prcstigo of tho equine
race. The motor car and the motor
truck were considered tho certain
doom of tho horso, but ho romnlns.
gaining in numbers and demand.
Tho reduction in tho nvcrago slzo
of farms In tho United States, as
shown In tho 1910 cchhus, mnkeB moro
farm horses necessary. Experiments
have proven that It requires propor
tionately moro horses to work a small
farm than It doeB a larger ono, for
there are moro Idle days during tho
year for horses on a small farm than
on a largu farm. But It is thn demand
for good horses from tho cities that
Is responsible for the advancing prlco.
Tho motor truck has taken tho place
of draft horses to somo extent, and
figures aro given by interested parties
that show .tho great economy In using
motor trucks over horBO power.
VnrlouB Influences, pro nnd con, aro
affecting tho horso mnrket at this
time. On ono hand thero Is an excep
tionally good demand from the cities
for largo exprcsHors nnd truckers. Tho
government Is buying horses, and may
buy many moro. On tho other hnnd,
tho open winter permitted farmers tp
do much plowing, particularly in tho
central and western states When
spring came, Instead of having to
work all their horsos, and perhaps buy
moro, somo farmers wcro In n position
to sell ono or more of their teams.
During the Boer war England bought
a large number of horses In this coun
try for sorvlco In South Africa. Kan
sas City dealers secured most of tho
contracts for theso horses, and horse
and mule receipts at Kansas City
Jumped from 33,000 head In 1S99 to
103,000 head In 1900, and almost at
many wore received In 1901, a volume
of horso and mule business that hap
never been equaled at that mnrkei
EXPANSION OF OUR
Farmer Must Raise Some Highly
Organized' Crop That Is
Adapted to Rotation.
(Hy 11. a. WKATIinilSTONi:,
In a measure the use of chemical
plant foods Is tho basis of expansive
farming. Tho profits fronvuslug those
plant foods will depend upon their
right purchase and use. Hlghtly used
they enable a man to place more of
his land under a remunerative system
of crop growing.
Wo have been farming1 along too
narrow lines. Tho fertility supply from
our farm stock aB compared with the
size of our farms, never gets far from
our barns and feed lots, so that whllo
But only a fraction of tho number
of horses In tho country are handled
onch jenr through tho big markets.
Tho horso business la entirely differ
ent In this respect from tho business
in meat-bearing animals. In 1913 of
tho 21,000,000 horses In the country,
only 3GO.000 wcro hnudlcd at tho prin
cipal hors.o markets, namely, St. Louis,.
Chicago, Kansas City, Ft. Worth, SU
Joseph and Omnha. the relatlvo Impor
tance of those markotB for the year
standing In the order named St.
Louis, Kansas City and St. Joseph aro
tho only markets named that recelvo
mules In any considerable numbers.
They rocelved 100,000 mules In 1913.
In addition to tho horses recelvod. At
lanta and Memphis handle a great
Tvho horso business at theso leading
markets last ear was grentcr than It
over was boforo. In 100S, fivo years
ago, total receipts of horses and mules
at thPEo markets was 33S.O0O head; In
1903, ton years ago, 3G9.000; and in
1898, fifteen years ago, tho total was
317,000 head. So far this year these
markets havo received practically tho
Bame number of horses as they re
ceived during the samo period last)
Horses at the markets are sold by
tho head, at auction to tho highest bid
der, either singly or In pairs, except
that unbroken rnnge horBes aro sold
In car-lotB, by tho head. Auction sales
aro hold ono or two days each week
at each of tho big markets, tho differ
ent markets having n mutual arrange
ment ns to tho dnys of tho weok,
which are fixed so that buyers may
travel from one market to another .
nnd attend bales, at several of the mar
kets each week, If thoy so dosiro.
Doubtless a vast number of horses
chango hands In tho country privately,
but country prices nro governed large
ly by prices ruling at tho horso auc
tions at tho various markets. Horso
dealers travel about tho country and
guthor up horses, nnd ship themto tho
central markets, nnd In this mannor
tho mnrket price Is established In tho
Prices for work animals qover a
wide range, $75 to ?100 for light
weight, serviceable animals for street
driving and llglit expressing, medium
weight chunks for city service at $125
to $175, farm geldings. $140 to $200,
farm mnrcs $150, to $225"; well-shaped
horses weighing 1,150 to 1,350 pounds
I at $185 to $275. and $300 to $350 for
horses weighing around a ton. Fancy
drivers and saddlers ate not as much
used OB they wcro ton or fifteen years
igo, and fower of them are produced,
but prices on them remain at substan
Her Two Colts.
n few acres "hold their own" tho
many tuffor for tho few.
To expand our farming wo must
widen our methods nnd ralso some
highly organized crop that Is adapted
to our rotation of crops and our farm
and that will pay a profit when grown
under Intense conditions.
Intonao tillugu makes tho soil moro
filablo. easier to cultivate and loom
ing with bacterial life, n condition
brought about by opening up tho nores
and giving tho air and Its t'peompos
ing agents an onnortunliv ....,
j bacterial action. The plnnt food that
is liiBoiunie, thUB becomes avnllnblo
I Poor Setting of Fruit.
( Tho poor sotting of fruit, which
often follows u long rain, Ib duo moro
i to a loss In vitality of tho pollen or to
somo mecnanicai injury to tho pistils;
also, In a largo measure, to tho fan'
that bees and other insects which pro
mote tho beneficial cross pollination
between varieties are abseut.
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