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About The North Platte semi-weekly tribune. (North Platte, Neb.) 1895-1922 | View Entire Issue (June 21, 1912)
Hogs llko fresh water.
Lookout for currant worms.
Too much sun is bad for chicks.
Do not allow too many pigs to run
Let your horses' take their time tho
Soft shelled eggs Indicate a lack of
limo in tho feed.
Poor fences soon breed and train up
a herd of breachy Btock.
BORDEAUX MIXTURE IS MOST
POPULAR FUNGICIDE NOW USED
First Essential Is to Securo a Sufficient Supply of Lime and
Sulphate of Copper to Last Through Second
Spraying After Blooms Fall Harmless
to Fruit and Foliage.
IMPORTANCE OF PROPER CARE
FOR HORSE OFTEN OVERLOOKED
Most Dangerous Time to Glvo Animal Water Is When He Haq
Cooled Down From Hard Work and Has Partaken
of Hearty Moul Largo Open Shed
Is Recommended for Shelter.
P? ) tr Wm, HZf
More silos and less rotten corn
shocks will Increase profits.
Cut up dandelions and the. tender
young shoots of grass for tho chicks.
Above all thlngB glvo tho calves
Spinach is easy to grow.
Keep the brooders clean.
Growing chicks requiro meat.
Poultry require much attention.
j Corn Is tho best finishing food for
1 Tho freshest eggs always hatch tho
Plan for a big lot of rootB for tho
sheep this year.
Easier to hatch a fine lot of chicks
than it Is to raise them.
Keep a good brood bow as long as
sh will produce satisfactory litters.
Bo suro that tho heifer is well de
veloped before allowing her to be
It Is better to give a cow' six to eight
weeks' rest between periods of lacta
tion. The disadvantage about June chicks
is that they will not mature for laying
in tho fall.
Young chicks sometimes occupy
nestB that have been so long used that
they are alive with vermin.
Neglect to keep one's obligations to
furnish eggs has been the ruination of
a great many poultry farmers.
Some poultrymen feed cut bone the
year around, and records show an In
crease in their laying capacity.
A two-weeks diet of cornmeal and
sklmmllk will mean an extra profit on
any culled qut birds to be marketed.
The best calves should be selected
from each year's crop. This is the
only way to keep tho herd in good
Never, misrepresent the age of an
egg. You can't afTord to sell your
soul for the sake of selling a few
The sheep's meridian of life is six
years. After that the downhill side
comes at a protty,good jog. It pays to
If the young chicks have gapes, you
may bo sure that the soil is contami
nated by gape worms, somewhere near
the poultry yard.
According to Prof. K. C. Davis of
the new Jersey agricultural experi
ment station, alfalfa is as easily
grown as any hay crop.
Bo sure there are no narrow doors
for the ewes to crowd through. One
jam may causo the loss of a lamb,
or both ewe and lamb.
It is much easier to start with stock
that is a proven success than It is to
breed up. Tho latter is a costly as
well as tiresome experiment.
According to those who have eggs
for hatching there will bo many new
fanciers. These breeders are report
ing large numbers of small sales.
A small Investment will fix up al
most any stable. With a few more
windows and some ventilating" flues
tho result will be thoroughly valuable.
Tho best -weaner you can put on tho
calf is never to allow it to suck the
cow after tho first few days, the first
milk (colostrum) being necessary for
It is commonly supposed that the
feeding of hogs in summer is cheap
er than in winter, because in winter
much' of the food is used to supply
Many farmers who make poultry
culture a side issue are apt to get it
too much on tho side. Make it a
branch of tho farm work, and glvo it
good business attention.
Beginning now, a succession of
patches planted to Bweet corn, cane,
cowpeaB, etc., will come in handy for
cow feed when pastures get short
about three months hence.
Make sure that the calf does not
get to the cow again, onco it is sep
arated from her and put on the sklm
mllk diet, as it will not only tend to
spoil tho calf, but will cause the cow
to worry after her calf and reduce
her milk flow.
Market or otherwise remove the
males from the flock bb soon na no
more eggs for hatching aro wanted.
They havo no influence on the number
of eggs produced, and infertile eggs
keep much the best, especially in
. warm weather.
clean, dry pens with plenty of sun
shine. In trimming raspberry and black
berry bushes, look out for tho gall
Faults in a' herd can bo eliminated
most quickly by careful breeding and
A hot sweat-collar is apt td soften
the shoulders of a horse, If you do
not look out.
A concrete tank will not spring a
leak and at the same time it will al
ways bo ready for uso7
If possible keep the ewes with twin
lambs separate from other sheep for
a week or so at least.
Provided your cow. Is a good one,
tho more she is fed along right lines,
tho more she will give.
It has been found advantageous to
wash the Inside of the silo wltlf
a mixture of cement and water.
Put a bull ring in tho noso of the
chronic self-sucking cow and you have
a humane, effectivo remedy.
Dairy work is Just llko any kind ot
work. If It is going to be done profit
ably It requires thought and care.
Silo users assert that they have
found a way to cut down the cost of
handling cows at least one-third.
Lack of charcoal, grit and green
food together with animal rations In
insufficient quantities means failure.
The dairyman, if he will uso tho
means that are at hand, can build up
his boII better than any other far
mer. There is no animal on the farm,
that turns a larger profit in propor
tion to tho money invested than a,
Old sheep sometimes mako good
money for experienced sheepmen, but
young sheepmen should start with
Some cows begin to "go back'
when they reach tho age of eight but
many others are still profitable at
twelve to fifteen.
(t is no little labor to keep a stall
where several calves run clean and
dry, but there is no other way if you
want to raise god calves.
Don't expect the team to do a hard
day's work In the field and then
trot a half dozen miles to town and
back again after supper.
The profit in keeping cows comes
from the extra amount of milk that
they glvo abovo tho ordinary yield on
common pasture or coarse feed.
Hogs should havo access to svatei
at all times, and running water Is to
be preferred, unless it flows through
farms where other hogs are kept.
It costs money to Inclose the chick
en yard, of course, but It costs less
than the toll exacted by cats, dogs and
rats helping themselves to the young
Growing chlckenB require much
meat, In order to produce the vigor
that will aid them to resist all kinds
of disease and even the attackB of lice
Good care consists In doing every
thing from milking and caring for the
cows to marketing the butter or cream
as if your whole life success depend
ed upon it.
Hog cholera can be readily pre
vented by keeping the source of con
tamination away from the herd by
protecting the well animals from all
carriers of the infection.
Nothing is more dellclotiB than
sweet corn, and if planted at intervals,
perhaps by making two or three plant
ings of It, a succession can be kept up
all summer and late In fall.
The size of tho udder Is not tho
only point to be considered In Judging
an udder. It should be soft and pli
able and milk down until It is left
like a dish rag at tho end of a milking.
They are plowing with dynamite
now to such an extent that ono manu
facturer of explosives sold to farmers
500,000 pounds In 1908, 750,000 pounds
In 1909, l,500,pOO pounds in 1910, 3,
000,000 pounds in 1911, and the indi
cations are that this one concern will
ship 5,000,000 pounds to farmers this
Equipment for mixing Bordeauxmlxture. No. 1, elevated water sup
ply tank, No. 2, stock solution tank for sulphate of copper. No. 5, stock
solution tank for lime. No. 6, elevated slaking box for lime. No. 3, tank
for diluting sulphate of copper solution. No. 4, tank for' diluting llmo so
lution. Nob. 3 and 4 each have attached a hose through which the di
luted solutions are run together through tho strainer Into the spray tank.
No. 7, a strainer.
(By W. H. CHANDU3R. Missouri Col
lege of Agriculture.)
Bordeaux mixture is a fungicide
mado by combining a solution of sul
phate of copper (blue vitriol) with a
solution of lime. This resulting sub
stance Is not soluble In water, but
verylowly Goes to the bottom ot the
liquid1. It is a flocculent, pasty sub
stance that stlckB exceedingly well to
Tho Btrength of Bordeaux mixture
is generally given In terms of GO gal
lons. Thus standard Bordeaux mlx-
ture 4:4:50 means that there aro
four pounds of sulphate of copper,
four pounds of lime and 50 gallons
of water. Bordeaux mixture 2:3:50
means that there are two pounds -of
Bulphato .of copper, three pounds of
lime in 50 gallons of water.
Bordeaux mixture Is ono of tho old
est and best known and most widely
used fungicides. It will control more
fungous diseases than any other
known fungicides used for spraying.
Thus it is effectivo on Apple Scab, Bit
ter Rot, Apple Blotch nnd practically
all other fungous diseases which may
bo controlled by summer spraying.
It sticks to the foliage better than
any known fungicide, and is probably
slightly less expensive than any other
fungicide of equal effectiveness.
While Bordeaux mlxMire is a very
effectivo spray, it la usually fairly
farmless to tho fruit and foliage. How
ever, there will likely be a slight yel
lowing and browning of the leaves,
due to the injury from the use of
Bordeaux mixture. Another more se
rious injury Is observed on the fruit.
Tho apple may bo sometimes coated
with russet, caused by injury to the
skin from Bordeaux mixture. The
two sprayings at which this Injury Is
to ho observed are those just after
tho bloom when the apple Is still coat
ed with a tender, hairy covering. At
this tlmo the Bkln Is very easily In
jured, and If Bordeaux mixture Is used
it Is used at a strength not greater than
two pounds of blue stone and three
pounds of lime to fifty gallons of wa
ter. The first essential for making Bor
deaux mixture Is a supply of lime nnd
sulphate of copper from which It la
made. Before the spraying Benson
begins, it Is certainly desirable that
enough sulphate of copper be pur
dhased to last through' the second
spraying after tho blooms fall. If tho
orchard is in a section where there
Equipment for mixing Bordeaux
mixture In a Email way. No. 1, lime
slaking' box. No. 2, stock solution bar
rel for lime. No. 3, stock solution
barrel for sulphate of copper. No. 4,
barrel spray pump. No. 5, bucket for
dipping and measuring stock solu
tions. Two such buckets would be
has been great danger from frost, it
may bo deslrablo not to order more
than this amount and to place a sec
ond order where it Is plain there Is
going to a crop. However, the
first three sprayings mny be given be
foro wo know whether or not there
will be a crop, and it is bo important
that they bo given at tho right time,
that sufficient sulphate of copper to
give them should always be ordered
during tho winter.
The price of sulphate of copper will
vary from five to eight cents. If the
llmo can bo secured from local deal
ers, of course It may be purchased is
needed. The lime used Bhould le
good in quality and of fresh stone If
it is impossible to secure this stone
lime, a fair grade of Bordeaux mix
lure may be mado from hydrated
Tho sulphato ot coppor and llmo
must bo brought together in very di
lute solutions for tho best Bordeaux
mixture. Tho sulphate of copper re
quires a considerable tlmo to dis
solve In water, and considerable tlmo
Is lequlrcd for slacking lime. For
these reasons It Is best to havo a mix
ing plant for making Bordeaux mix
ture. This mixing plant should con
sist of a stock solution tank In which
enough sulphato of copper may ho dis
solved to last through ono spraying, If
not through several. Tho sulphato of
copper is usually dissolved In water
at tho rate of ono pound to the gal
lon, so It Is only necessary to dip
from tho Btock solution tank ono gal
lon In order to get ono pound of sul
phate of copper. Then there Is nee
essnry for tho llmo an olovated slak
ing box in which tho llmo may bo
slaked and drawn down Into a stock
solution tank. In this case, also, ono
pound of llmo should bo dissolved in
a gallon of water. Tho llmo ot
course should bo weighed before this
slaking. Two dilution tanks, Buch as
Is shown In tho figure, aro also neces
sary, ono for sulphate of copper and
the other for lime. In these tanks
the substances aro diluted beforo they
are run together Into a mixing tank
or the spray tank. All of these
tanks should bo on an elevated plat
form bo that tho liquid can be run out
of them Into tho spray tank below.
Where water pressure Is not available
an elevated water tank Is needed to
supply water to theso stock solution
tanks, or In some cases a good pump
run by a gasoline engine may take
tho plnco of tho elevated water tank.
In this caso the water would bo
pumped direct from a pond or well
Into tho Btock solution tanks and tho
dilution tanks. A good strainer is nn
essential part of tho equipment. There
nro various types of strainers, but
probably ono llko that shown in tho
figure where tho strainer cornea to
gether In tho center making four
Blunting surfaces through which tho
liquid can run Is tho most deslrablo
type. This allows tho sediment to
settlo down toward tho bottom, leav
ing plenty of straining surfaco about
Tho process of making Bordeaux
mixture with a plant llko this would
them as follows: First in making
tho sulphato of copper stock solution,
assuming that the tank holds 100 gal
lons, tho tank Bhould bo filled nearly
full of water, then 100 poundB of tho
sulphato of coppor should be weighed
out and placed in n gunny sack or
some other porous material and sus
pended just In the top of the liquid.
If it is poured into the bottom of the
barrel It will be some months before
it would all be dissolved unless hot
iwater is UBed. Thon assuming that
tho lime stock solution barrel holds
100 gallons, wo should weigh out 100
pounds of good stone lime, slako It in
the elevated slaking box and draw it
out, usunlly through a strainer, into
the lime stock solution tank and fill
the tank up to 100 gallons.
Now suppose It Is desired to make
200 gallons of Bordeaux mixture at a
strength ot 4:40:50. After stirring,
1G gallons of the sulphate of copper
stock solution should bo dipped into
tho sulphate of copper dilution tank
and this tank filled up to 100 gallons.
Then tho llmo stock solution barrel
should bo stirred thoroughly and 16
gallon dipped from it into tho lime
dilution tank. Then tho contents of
theso dilution tanks should bo run
through a strainer Into a. separate
mixing tank or directly Into tho spray
If it is desired to make only 100
gallons of tho mixture, one-half of
these quantities should bo used In all
cascB, or If it Is desired to make only
50 gallons of the mlxturo, one-fourth
of these quantities should be used.
Big Egg Center.
Petnluma, California, ships four and
one-half million dozen eggs every year.
A horso should bo watered beforo
feeding, and never given a largo quan
tity of water after a meal, for tho
Blmple reason that the water will wash
tho food out of the stomach beforo
stomach digestion has taken place,
and tho food will not bo well prepared
for absorption; and besides it la some
times tho causo of tollc.
There is a popular Idea that a wnrm
horso should not bo allowed to drink
nnd, unllko a grent many other popu
lar Ideas, there Is n little truth In it.
If you water a warm horso In tho or
dinary way, letting him drink all that
ho will, you nro likely to havo a foun
dered horse on your hands. This la
especially so If, at tho time, tho horso
Is fatigued. Nevertheless, It is always
safe to allow him from six to ten swal
lows, no mnttcr how warm ho Is. If
thla bo given on going Into the Btnblo
and ho bo allowed to stand and cat
hay for an hour aild Is then offered
water, he will not drink nearly eo
much as ho would had nono been
The danger Is not in the first swal
low, as wo. often hear It asserted, but
in tho excessive quantities ho will
drink if not restrained.
John Splan, tho grent trainer,
"As to water, I think that a horso
should havo all thnt he wants at all
times. A man says: 'Why; will you
give your horso water beforo a race?'
Yes, before tho race, In tho race, and
after tho race, nnd any other time
that he wnntB to drink. When I say
give your horso all tho wnter ho wants
beforo the race, I do not mean that
you shall tie him in a warm stall
where Tie cannot get a drink for five
or six hours on a hot day, and then
take him to the pump and give him all
that ho wants. What I mean la to
glvo him wnter often nnd, In that wny,
lie will only tnko a small quantity at
After long, continuous exertion tho
system la greatly depleted of fluid.
Nature calls for Its replacement, and
this is tho causo of n thirst which
is bo Intenso that, if tho animal la not
restrained at this time, ho may drink
much moro than ho needs.
CREAM AND MILK
farmers Not no Much to Ulamo
for Their Carelcasncsa aa
' Price Paid for tho
The education of dairymen In tho
way of producing good cream and
milk Is progressing. Some of tho
large creameries, particularly thoso
of tho west, aro paying for cream ac
cording to Its renl value and are care
fully grading It.
Time was under sharp competition
when tho creameries took all kinds of
cream just as It came and paid tho
same price for good, bad and indiffer
ent. It was not long beforo tho
creameries found out that this did
not pay and now many of them aro
separating the cream and grading It
according to condition. For instance,
number one consists of separator
cream which 1b delivered twice a
week In winter and three times a
week In summer. Thla must bo rea
sonably sweet and in good condition
and teat at least 30 per cent butter
Cream graded as number) two in
cludes nil hand separator cream de
livered not less than onco a week In
winter nnd twice In summer, It muBt
be reasonably clean, In good condition
and test not less than 20 per cent,
in butter fat. The lowest grade, num
ber three, includes all gravity cream
and all hand separator cream which
toss less than 20 per cent. This
grade nlso Includes nil cream that Is
In poor condition even if it should test
moro than 20 per cent.
Tho creameries ought to have adopt
ed some system of this kind long ago
nnd It Is their fault largo; that they
have not been able to produce better
butter than they have. Much of tho
creamery butter on tho market is
mighty poor stuff and it comes from
mixing good nnd bad cream.
Farmers are not so much to blame
Tho custom, almost universally fol
lowed, of giving tho morning meal be
fore water, is not very objectionable,
cither theoretically or practically. At
this tlmo there la no depletion of fluid,
consequently tho horso Is not very
thirsty and docs not drink rapidly or
oxccsslvely and apparently very littlo
evil results from this method. How-
over, tho writor much prefers that thol
horso Bhould havo an opportunity to'
drink what la good for, him beforo tho(
Personally, I much prefer keeping)
horses, both summer nnd winter, Ini
an open shed, with a largo water tank,
In the yard, to tying thorn by thoi
head In a barn.
Not only In giving water to horses
must care bo exorcised but in every;
other way. '
Many a good driving horso baa his
yeara ot usefulness cut short by bolng
left In tho hands of some person whoj
does not know how to take' caro of a
horso or docs not caro what happpns
to tho horse that happens to como in
to his hands.
One of tho most common wnys qf
Injuring n driving horso ia by driving
him hard in cool weather, and when'
tho horso has been brought into a'
sweat, leaving him uncovored and ex
posed to cold winds or to drafts in
It la Boldom necessary to drlvo a
horso so hard on a cool day that ho
will bo In n sweat. In wnrm weather
it is different, as tho horse, then.
Bweats with littlo exertion.
When tho horso haa been driven un
til ho ia covered with foam and Bweat,
he should bo taken into a stnble, rub
bed down with whlsps of hay or plcco.
of rough cloth, and thon blanketed.
Tho neglect Qf such precautions haa
resulted In many a horso catching a
cold that haB proved serious.
Driving is a science itself, nnd .there
are many mature people who have not
learned how to dlrvo a horso. They
havo no Idea us to tho amount of work
ho is ablo to perform without lessen
ing his vitality.
It must bo romembored that a horBO
as well ns a man, Is limited as to what
ho can do. '
for their carelessness, as they havo
been paid as much for poor cream aa
good. Of courBo this sort of buBlnesa
did not offer any inducement to Bend
good Bweet, clean cream to market
and to Bend It often. Now that many
of tho big creameries havo started
into this campaign of education tho
farmer who produces tho best cream
will havo tho advantago over tho care
less nnd indifferent dairyman that ho ,
should have, as it puts a premium on
Boot Authoritioa Claim There
Nov or Was Ono of That
Breed Spotted or Calico
Tho best authorities on tho Arabiani
horse claim there never waa a really'
pure ono of that breed that waa spot
ted or calico in color. Even the cir
cus men, however, havo not nearly so.
much uso for the skewbald horse aa:
they onco had. The small supply fills
their demand. They find thnt horses
of tho draft breeds pull their wagons:
better, while for ring usea the tougher
bono and sinew of the thoroughbred
or trotter recommend the;n. Still
some attractions dlo hard and a fowi
spotted freaks are always to bo found!
benenth every big canvnss. Tho
Arabian horso may briefly bo describ
ed aa a thoroughbred on a small acalo.
There aro many fine specimens of tho
breed in this country but moro in'
Kngland. It Is difficult to get really
good specimens out of tho Sultan's do
mains. Not only is their exportation
prohibited by Imperial decree, but
rivalry among tho sheiks of the no
madic Arabians which own the best,
bands is so keen that good stallions
enn hardly be bought at first hands
nnd no ono wants to pay much money)
for a poor individual and then go deep
down In pocket two or three times
more to place It on ship board.
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