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About The North Platte semi-weekly tribune. (North Platte, Neb.) 1895-1922 | View Entire Issue (March 8, 1912)
THOROUGH DISINFECTION TO
PREVENT INFECTIOUS DISEASE
A.vorago Stockman and Farmer Docs Not Rcallzo Impor-
tanco of Treatment for Hla Premises Following
Outbreak of Dlsordor Complete Removal
of Causo la to bo Desired
PRACTICE OF PROPAGATING,
PRUNING AND TRAINING GRAPE
Vines are Ordinarily Germinated from Cuttings, by Layering
or by Grafting Selection and Proper Keeping of
Scions are Very Important Treatment
Glvon Determines Profit
T. J x7Dt.
)py imuaw intf
i) -c f
Manuro tho wheat Holds.
Tho separator la necessary.
Warm tho water for ho stock.
Tho fall-freshening cow Is tho profit
producer. All soils deficient In llmo bocomo
inoro or less sour.
Rams under ono and a half years
of ago should not bo used.
Egg farming 1b tho most profltablo
branch of tho poultry Industry.
Milk selling nt 8 cents a quart Is ono
of tho cheapest of human foods.
Got good cows and feed thorn good
feed, and you will got good rosults.
Cull beans, when cooked and mixed
with corn, mako very goodhog foed.
Ono good cow will frequently return
inoro not profit than throo poor ones,
la trimming tbo treo, do not leave
any branch moro than olght Inches
Don't Imagine that your soil needs
a rest. What It noedB Is a chango of
Don't forgot tho grit theno days
when tho hens nro conflnod to tho
Tho best remedy for short pastures
Is a silo with 0 or 8 foot of good sllago
left In It.
To prevent sun-scald It Is necessary
only to protect tho bark of tho trunk
from tho sun.
When tho horso 1b In normal con
dition ho should havo all of tho wntor
ho will drink.
Many farmers havo drawn n groat
mortsuro of prosperity from tho teats
of tho dairy cow.
Corn with largo cobs usually dries
out slowly honeo Its vitality In ofton
Injured by froozlng.
Tho man who has tho best In tho
'IJvo stock lino novor hns to hunt a
Jjuycr. They hunt him.
Bad woathor will mako bad milk, no
matter what tho food may bo. And
bad milk makos bad butter.
"February hutched chicks nro apt to
, anolt in tho fall, and will not bo worth
anything for egg production in winter.
Manuro from grain and clover-fed
Htock Is worth fully $1.25 por two
horso cartload In tho farmer's barn
yard. Wheat straw Is not a first-class dairy
food, but it will oorvo to counteract
In, a measure tho laxative effect of tho
Food tho onsllngo so that tho ani
mals will oat It up clean, as it spoils
or froozos when oxposod to tho air for,
Exorclso for tho bow is a very im
portant matter and must not bo ovor
.lookod if a healthy, vigorous littor of
mlgs is desired.
Cleanliness -will do much to improvo
tho quality of butter. In fact, first
quality depends upou cleanllnoss of
tho raw material.
Tako caro .that nono of tho soapy
wutor from tho houso gotB into tho
milk fed tho hogs. Almost suro to
causo bowel troubles.
Forcing laying honB with stimulants
of any kind, except thoso nature sup
plies in good food, is a dangerous and
costly process in tho long run.
Leaving. tho cows' teats damp after
milking will not only causo a decrease
in tho flow of milk, but is suro to
causo chapped and cracked teats.
Do not ho too sparing of tho feed
as tho lambing tteason approaches.
An undorfod owo will not bo likely to
produco a big uor vigorous lamb.
Tho snoop Tmow tholr mastor'B
voice- thoro is no doubt about that;
-but It is moro important to know what
they do when thoy hear it whoWior
they floe iu fear or como with expec
tancy. "Every dairyman must, if ho will
succeed, employ a detoctlvo in his
dairy barn -a Babcoolc tester. This
detective le absolutely honoBt, Bil0ws
.favprs tdriobody"alnd always records
facta from all the facts. Tho poor
cows stand no chance against It.
Clvo the lions sunshine
Turkeys roqulro fresh air.
Foed your clover hay and most ot
When sod land Is plowed for corn,
It should bo limed. .
Tho ground for soiling crops should
bo located near the stables.
That fresh cow Is tho most proflt
ablo animal on tho farm Just no"'.
Thoro Is moro danger In letting tho
Incubator get too hot than too cold.
Horses nro most economically fat
tened if thoy are not exercised nt all.
In splto of tho dry season tho coun
try soems to havo plenty of rough
Cut tho lco for use next summer be
fore It gets too thick IC inches Is
Whero Is that surplus of dairy pro
ducts somo folks said wo were to havo
If tho fruit Is stored in tho collar,
It muBt bo well ventilated and per
A cow that Is a small eater will bear
watching. Sho Is protty Buro to bo a
Tho ration should bo balanced to
meot tho needs of the cow nt all
stages of lactation.
Prunliig dono correctly wjll Increase
tho size and improvo tho' quality of
most common fruits,
Ono thing that can bo given the
fowls, nnd which thoy lack very often,
1b pure drinking water.
You can toll a laying hen as far as
you can seo hor. Her comb Is always
bright and healthy looking.
Cooking will Improvo turnips ,for
fattening hogs because It takes out
conBldorablo of tho wator. '
Tho coldest weather does not
tho Insects. Theroforo spraying 1b tho
safest mothod of killing thorn.
For seed production cowpcas should
bo planted In rows so that an oppor
tunity 1b given for cultivation.
Sell whent, cloverseed and timothy,
but foed all tho rough forago and uso
your straw for food and bedding.
Contrary to popular belief moro
chickens dlo from Juno until Soptora
bor than In all tho rest of tho year.
Tho man who enn rnlso good live
stock and does not do It Is piling up
n lot of profitless work for himself.
Just tho right tlmo to clean up
around tho lots, It Is surprising how
much litter can accumulate during tha
Excollonco is always relative Its
rolativo degrees can only bo gauged
With accuracy whon accurato records
Both oil meal and cottonseed meal
may bo used In tho fattening horse
ration in amounts as high as throo
Two pounds of mixed shorts nnd
bran por cow per day is not Bufllclcnt
for cows that aro expected to give lib
eral flows of milk.
Tho best plnco for tho incubator Is
tho ono whero tho tomporaturo is most
nearly uniform from day to day, un
der natural conditions.
Unllko other poultry tho turkoy has
never boon thoroughly domesticated,
but has remained practically a wild
bird in Us requirements.
A record should bo kept whon sows
aro bred and they should be separ
ated from tho other hogs a wook or
two before duo to farrow.
Swamp land, whon drained nnd
limed and worked In corn for n year
or two, should bo seeded to gruBB and
kept lnpormanont meadow.
Aftor tho chrysanthemums have
quit blooming, sot thovpots In tho col
lar, so tho plants will stand dormant
nnd bo ready to Bot out noxt Bprtng.
Soloctod cowb, foed crops that hro
grown on our farms, will ylold fair
proflto to any man who likes tho
dairy businoBs nnd will Btny with it.
An ideal way of keeping feed, but
ono which many westorn dairymen
ennnot havo, 1b to hnvo a roof ovor it
all. ThlB way no feed Is spoiled nnd
feeding In cold, windy woathor loses
If n young pig becomes chilled,
tako it to tho houso nnd pluugo it in
warm water (ob hot as you can boar
your hand) several tlmos, and then
wrap In, warm flannel nnd put In a
Tho Peking duck of this country is
ah Improvement on tho original Po
king, brought from China. Wo nray
mnko fun of tho "hcnlhon Chlnoo," his
pigtail, chopstlckB and rat ration, but
whon wo brag of our poultry lot's ro
mombor that ho originated tho ancos
tral breeds of many of our best fowls.
?rr"?'i-i't-r -,M'm:)M h.. i . t. ! ffir.wum.w
-mpM&mmMffiW, Wa iKiuSMffl
'ttuaviV)i:.ii..i.i.'f,u wvv.siy i"m m. jit, y.v. . nnnmuL.vimhiuuiuauuunLm
-"7mfiMr'..f Tprr CffpuTSa IfI , mMm MMSmMuiMwluimmmL
,vtW!vdtLijw I W'li WlJllmk ffiaM"'''1''''1' lH
(By GEORGE "W. TOPE, Veterinary In
spector, United States Department of
In the work of tho bureau of animal
industry in dealing with infectious dis
eases of live stock it has been found
that tho avorago stockman and farmer
does not realize the importanco of thor
oughly disinfecting his premises fol
lowing an outbreak of contagious dis
ease Thoro Is apparently a widespread
lack of information regarding tho
germicidal power of varlouB sub
stnncos, commonly termed disinfect
ants. Thoro Is also a lack of knowl
edge concornlng practical and econom
ical methods of proceeding with tho
work of disinfection. Moreover, tho
roappoaranco of a contagious dlscaso
on promises from which it was be
lieved to have boon oradlcatcd may
frequently bo traced to careless or Im
perfect work in connection with tho
cleaning nnd disinfecting of tho placo.
It is but natural to acknowledgo tho
prosenco of only such objects as can
bo soon with tho unaided eye. Science,
however, by meanB of tho hlgh-powor
microscope, has clearly proved tho ex
istence of numerous minute animal and
vegotnblo organisms microorganisms
nnd It is a matter of common knowl
edge that many of thoso organisms fre
quently And their way into tho animal
body nnd produce disease It is also
well known that theso micro-organ
isms, or germs, vnry In form and oth
er characteristics and that for each
dlseaso of an Infectious nature thoro
is a spoclflc germ.
Tho work of disinfection is based
upon our recognition of tho presence
of dlseaso germs, and disinfection
menus tho act of destroying tho causo
of tho Infection. In other words, disin
fection is a removal of tho cause, and
It will bo clear to any practical man
that In dealing with disease any effort
which stops short of n completo re
moval of tho cause is most unwlso nnd
unprofitable. To tho30 unaccustomed
to tho work, disinfection may seem a
most complicated process. Any ap
proved mothod, however, Is compara
tively simple whon carried out care-
A Good Typo of Barrel Sprayer.
fully, although, llko many another pro
cedure, It Is ono in which attention to
dotalls counts for much. It is Im
portant to boar In mind that tho caus
atlvo agents for mnny diseases aro ox
tromoly Bmnll, and may remuin for an
indoflnlto tlmo in dust, cracks, and
crevices of buildings, so that efforts
aiming nt tho eradication ot dlseaso
from contnmlnnted promises must bo
thorough in ordor to bo effective
In tho work of disinfection naturo
Iisb provided man with a most vnlu
able ully -sunlight. It is woll known
that tho direct rays of tho sun nro de
structive to many forms of bncterla, In
oino cases destroying them and in oth
ers lessening their influence Tims
tho Importanco of woll-llghtod stables
is evident. Tho dark nnd sunless
building will bo a favorablo breeding
placo for bacteria, and tho structure
which admits tho greatest amount of
sunlight will bo the loast favorablo for
tholr development. Again, heat will
destroy tho bacteria of disease. By
this Is not meant! tho ordinary heat ot
tho sun,' but heat us dovoloped In boll
lng wntor or in flnnio. It 1b upon this
principle that tho surgeon, before op -
!" ,II'MI ".".I.
orating renders his instruments free
from tho possible presence of bacteria
by boiling, and it Is heat which ronders
a Jet of live steam destructive to bac
teria. Sunlight, however, cannot bo
considered moro than an accessory in
tho destruction of bacteria, while tho
application of heat In tho form of
steam or flamo is seldom possible
The result Is that In tho practical
work of disinfection we are dependent
upon certain drugs, which have pow
er to destroy tho organisms of dls
easo. Chlorido of llmo (sometimes termed
chlorinated lime) is a well-known dis
infectant, although Its value Is doubt
less greatly overrated. This may bo
duo in part to tho fact that it is a
powerful deodorant such drugs on
account of their pungent odor being
popularly believed to havo great dis
infecting power. Being of uncertain
strength and somewhat destructive
to motals, and having a permeating
odor especially objoctlonablo In a
Btablo, whero milk Is produced, chlor
ide of lime cannot Jjo classed as the
most deslrablo of disinfectants. For
gonoral disinfecting purposes it may
bo mixed with water In tho proportion
of six ounces to tho gallon.
An aqueous solution containing ap
proximately 40 per cent, of formalde
hyde and known as formalin has of
recent years bocomo a moro or less
Formaldehyde is used in either
liquid or gaseous form. In tho former
case formalin is mixed with water in
the proportion of b1x ounces to the
gallon, and tho resulting solution is
applied directly to surfaces or sub
stances which aro to bo disinfected.
Formaldohydo gas is in most cases
Impracticable for Btablo disinfection.
Where, however, a stablo can bo mado
almost air tight, and tho animals re
moved, It will bo found very service
able, as It penetrates ovory crevice.
Carbolic ncld In its puro form is,
at ordinary temperatures, in tho
shnpo of long, white crystals. For con
vonlonco it is frequently dispensed in
liquid form by tho addition of ten
por cent, of wator. A Ave per cent,
solution of carbolic acid is somotlmes
used as a disinfectant, but carbolic
acid has tho disadvantage of bolng ex
pansive and somewhat difficult to dis
solve. This substance should not be con
fused with puro carbolic acid. It is a
product of coal-tar distillation and
consists for the most part ot practi
cally inort oils and cresylic acid. Its
disinfecting power depends upon the
amount of cresylic acid which it con
tains, as wel as tho relative percent
age of hydrocarbon oils. Owing to
Its uncertain composition, crude car
bolic acid cannot bo classed aB ono of
tho most desirable dislnfoctants.
Cresol, commonly termed "straw
colored carbolic acid," "liquid car
bolic acid," etc., in a two per cent, so
lution Is an efficient disinfectant. It
has tho disadvantage, however, of bor
lng somowhat difficult to dissolve, so
in preparing a disinfecting solution
warm water should bo used and caro
exercised that tho drug Is entlroly
dissolved. As tbo' disinfecting power
of cresol is dopendont upon tho
amount of cresylic acid contained
therein, it is essential whon using
tho drug to know tho degreo of purity.
Grades can bo purchased under a guar
anty to contain 90 to 98 per cont, of
cresylic acid. Any containing lesp
than 90 per cent, should bo rejected.
Compound solution of crosol (liquid
crosolls composltus), now recognized,
by tho United States Pharmacopoeia
na an official preparation, is com
posed of equal parts of cresol (U. S.
P.) and linseed oil-potash soap. It is
nn efficient disinfectant iu a four por
cent, solution nnd hns tho advantago
of mixing readily with water.
Herotoforo Canada has taken most
of tho first prizos in tho sheop exhibi
tions nt tho International Stock Show,
but at the show hold in December, tho
breeders of tho United States camo to
tho front In good shape. Wyoming and
Kentucky carrying oft tho principal
(By OEOnaE C. HUBSMANN, Pomolo
Rlat, United States Department of Ag
riculture.) In ordinary practlco grapevines are
propagated from need, from cuttings,
by layering, or by grafting. For orig
inating now varieties, seedlings must
of course bo used. The Individual
seedlings differ bo widely that thoy
nro seldom used by tho intelligent
planter oven for grafting stock.
Cuttings for propagation may bo
prepared at any tlmo after the vines
havo become dormant. Other things
being equal, nnd if they aro after
wards well cared for, tho sooner they
nro prepared after the vinos havo be
come dormant the better. Tho length
of the cuttings may vary from 8 to
20 Inches, depending on the climatic
and other'conditlons of tho locality
In which they aro to bo planted
Usually tho hotter and drier tho cli
mate tho longer the cuttings will need
to be. They should always be mado
from young, well-matured wood, and
preferably from medium-sized, short
Tho trentment given vines during
the first years of their growth largely
determines tho profit and pleasure
to bo' derived from them. If Improp
erly cared for during this period sat
isfactory returns aro not obtained
If cuttings are planted and tho sup
ply is sufficient, two In each placo
Increases the chancqs of getting a
full stand. Should both cuttings grow,
one of them can easily be pulled up
without Injuring tho other. To pro
tect tho cuttings from drying out,
' rl 'hg.i J J
Fig. 1 A Vine With Two Canes Lay
ered, showing the Method of Prop
agation by Layers.
plant them bo that tho top bud pro
jects only a trifle above tho ground.
If rooted vines, either plain or graft
ed, are used, the roots should bo cut
back to 3 or 4 inches, depending on
their vigor. Only one cane of the
top should bo left, and this should be
cut back to two or threo good buds.
If grafts aro used, all scion roots and
all Buckors should bo carefully re
moved. During tho first year after planting
no pruning or training 1b usually giv
en, although it Is, perhaps, a good
plan with vigorous plants, especially
If tho season Is propitious, to rub off
all except the stralghtest nnd strong
est of tho Toung shoots that start.
There aro various ways in which
the objects of pruning aro accom
plished. For lnstanco, tho growth
and health of a plant nro promoted
and the size of tho fruit Is Increased
(1) by removing all the diseased
parts and suckers; (2) by shortening
extended shoots, side shoots and lat
erals; (3) by putting upright the
part whoso rapid growth is desired;
and (4) by removing the fruit buds or
fruit. The plant is retarded in
growth and mado to bear earlier and
richer fruit by shortening tho leading
shoots nnd leaving the fruit-bearing
wood and by bending down the
No man car succeed in dairying
and make it realize to its full capacity
who does not Inform himself and bo
como a student in tbo business and
put his best thought into his every
If thoro is anything next to good
cowb that Is needed on n dairy farm,
it is clean, well kept, sanitary stables.
It wo aro to keep cowb It is far
cboaper to keop them In a well ap
Success or failure in tbo dairy buel
ness doos not depend upon thfa size
of tho farm or the number of cows a
man keeps, or tho rushing he does,
branches and ring-pruning them. Tho
healing of wounded and diseased
plants is promoted by removing tho
injured parts and dressing the wound.
Tho bead of a plant Is renewed by(
cutting off tho branches above; tho'
Fig. 2 A Grapevine Showing tho
Method of Pruning Roots Ready;
head is mado to grow thicker by cut
ting back the outer branches and to
grow thinner by amputating all canea
on which there is too much growth.
There aro bo many Bpecles ot
grapes, each having peculiarities oC
its own and therefore responding most
readily to certain cultural methods- to
which It is best adapted, that tho
pruning, traiuing and growing of
vines, which otherwise may appear
qulto simple, becomo complicated op
erations in which comparatively few
peoplo becomo expert, and vineyards
in which serious mistakes are not
mado aro rare.
In tho overhead system, which haa
been used to somo extent in New
York, tho vises are carried upon a
canopy or overhead arbor six feet
abovo the ground, consisting of threo
horizontal wires stretched at the
same height, Tho center wire ,1s
fastened to posts which are placed at
regular intervals, and the side wires
are attached to three-foot cross arms
of wood fastened to tho posts. Tho
head of the vine Is annually cut back
Fig. 3 A Pruned Vine (A) and an Ur
pruned Vine (B), Showing tho
Method of Training by the Over-,
head Caywood System.
to Ave canes and five spurs. The
canes aro fastened on tho wires, two
in ono direction and threo In tho
other, this division being alternated
each year. Fig. 3, A and B, shows
vines pruned and unpruned, trained
according to this system.
but upon tho character of the man,
tho intelligent thought ho gives his
business and his management. Men
who tako tlmo to think, read and
study aro tho one's that aro making
the money and aro' well satisfied with
It Is not breeding alone that is go
ing to dotcrmlno tho future usefulness
of tho cow, but it must bo supported
by liberal feeding, dally caro and
The illustration shows an Ideal stall
In which tho maximum amount of!
freedom is given by meaus of the
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